Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Double Consciousness By. B Du Bois - 1651 Words

The â€Å"double consciousness† coined by W.E.B Du Bois, became a popular ideology during the Harlem Renaissance to depict conflicting identities of the black community. Du Bois understood the historical context of black immigration from rural to urban areas would cause problems for those who wanted to create a better life for themselves. Many of the black men who moved to the north were â€Å"untrained and poorly educated.† Du Bois attempted to formulate his theory of identity with race, ethnicity, and culture. With the formation of the split identity in combination with intersectionality, the struggle with forced assimilation cultural, racial, and ethnic identity has been built into the system of oppression in the black community. Du Bois hopes that the concept of the double consciousness conceptualizes black agency as well as raises awareness and gains power through the resistance. In doing so, will conflict subjectivity within whiteness and black inferiority, even tually deconstructing white western ideology. The problem with the theory of double consciousness is that Du Bois cannot fully dismiss white ideology because his identity is comprised of white education and cultural appropriation.† Deconstructing western ideology is problematic when black writers and intellectuals like Du Bois are fighting for authentic blackness and are also practicing western theory that derives from the non-European origin. The Harlem movement would have to become a universal phenomenon,Show MoreRelatedB Du Bois s Theory Of Double Consciousness1933 Words   |  8 Pagesreaction at all; doing so I would compare this act to W.E.B Du Bois s theory of double consciousness. I had a difficult time figuring out what I was going to do for my norm violation, but I ended up choosing riding in an elevator incorrectly. Most people face the direction that the elevator door opens up so instead I chose to face multiple different directions, as long as it wasn’t towards the door. I compared this to having a double consciousness since I was well aware that others were about to perceiveRead MoreWeb Du Bois and Double Consciousness Essay936 Words   |  4 PagesW.E.B. Du Bois: Double-Consciousness Ashanti Johnson SOC101 Lestine Shedrick October 18, 2011 W.E.B. Du Bois (1968-1963) was a huge contributor to sociology through the eyes and experience of an African-American scholar (Vissing, 2011). Du Bois was an author, activist and student of Black sociology. In his 1897 article, Strivings of the Negro People†, Du Bois introduced the term â€Å"double-consciousness†, a concept I believe to be just as relevant in today’s African-American communitiesRead MoreFerhana Shah. Dr. Neufeld And Dr. Slucki. Honors Colloquium1565 Words   |  7 PagesApril 2017 Transcending Double Consciousness in 20th Century America In The Souls of Black Folk, W. E. B. Du Bois coins â€Å"double consciousness†, as a â€Å"peculiar feeling†¦ this sense of always looking at one s self through the eyes of others† (Du Bois I). He goes on to say that as a black person, â€Å"one ever feels his twoness—an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body,† (Du Bois I). In other words, double consciousness refers to living withRead MoreDouble Consciousness1491 Words   |  6 PagesDouble Consciousness: An Explanation in Terms of Simmel and Mead Dr. Muhammed Asadi SOAN 360- Sociological Theory The term double consciousness, simply put, refers to the psychological challenge of reconciling an African heritage with a European upbringing and education. Similarly, the term the veil refers to the physical and metaphysical differences between blacks and whites. These expressions originated from an Atlantic Monthly article by W. E. B. Du Bois called â€Å"Strivings of the Negro PeopleRead MoreDifferences Between Du Bois And Marx1365 Words   |  6 PagesWhile there were many similarities between Du Bois and Marx there was also key differences, particularly the type of division in society and social groupings discussed. Marx was interested in how Social Classes were divided and the economic conditions which led to the subordination of the poor to the wealthy (Ritzer Stepnisky, 2018). Du Bois took this idea a step further and studied the ways in which society was stratified by race and how minority groups were viewed and subsequently exploited byRead MoreDu Bois : An Important Am erican Thinker1744 Words   |  7 PagesW. E. B. Du Bois was an important American thinker, philosopher, poet, economic historian, social critic, and sociologist. His work challenges our own categorization and how we see each other in society. The article focuses merely on Du Bois contribution to philosophy. The reader must keep in mind throughout reading the article that Du Bois is more than a philosopher he is a countless social leader. His extensive efforts all seem to come down to one common goal in the article, the equality of coloredRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance Poets Essay1317 Words   |  6 Pagesdescendants harness. The two authors I picked were W.E.B Du Bois and Langston Hughes. The reason why I picked these two is because of the dedicated work they have flourished during the Harlem Renaissance. W.E.B Du Bois was one of the most famous black political leaders during that time. Du Bois had a lot of talent to bring during this fine time as he was the editor of an inspiring magazine called â€Å"The Crisis†. In this particular magazine Du Bois expressed that blacks were on the same level and mentallyRead MoreKarl Marx s The Soul Of Black Folks 947 Words   |  4 PagesMarx thought of race and ethnicity as second place to the class struggle. His main focuses were capitalism, exploitation, and alienation. On the other hand, W.E. B. Du Bois did not stratify race, class and nation as a personal characteristic but as social hierarchies that formed Blacks access to position, poverty, and authority. W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He was the first African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard University, and he focused on historyRead MoreDouble Consciousness as Defined by Du Bois in The Souls of Black Folk: An Analysis1737 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿Double consciousness as defined by Du Bois in The Souls of Black Folk: It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at ones self through the eyes of others, of measuring ones soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. (The Souls of Black Folk, pp.453-470) harkens to the double consciousness felt by Lae Choo in In the land of the Free by Sui Sin Far. Like Du Bois, Far illustrates through the personal experiences of the charactersRead MoreThe Social Theory of Du Bois1907 Words   |  8 Pagesof W.E.B Du Bois Aaron Josuah Cabahug Sociology 102 4/21/2013 Abby Mosher The Social Theory of W.E.B Du Bois Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim are widely recognized as the trinity of sociological theory. While these three sociologists were trailblazing social theorists who enhanced the study of human behavior and its relationship to social institutions, other, more contemporary scholars were just as innovative - one of those scholars being W. E. B. Du Bois. W. E. B. Du Bois was a political

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Overeating In Youths And Adolescents Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

Overeating is a major societal job. Throughout the history, perceptual experience of gluttony has been altering with clip owing to the altering societal, political, and economic state of affairss. Overeating is an eating upset which is centrally characterized by dependence to nutrient that leads to gorge eating. We will write a custom essay sample on Overeating In Youths And Adolescents Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Persons who suffer from compulsive eating upset suffer from episodes of uncontrolled feeding. It has been shown to hold psychological connexion as these persons tend to see pressured and manic feeling. As a consequence, the persons continue eating even after they become uncomfortably full. Binge eating tends to be followed by intense guilt and sometimes depression. While bulimics will purge themselves with purging or usage of laxatives, persons enduring from compulsive eating upset seldom puke or usage laxatives and hence they continue to roll up weight. Overeating has been recognized as one of the factors lending to increased incidences of corpulence and fleshiness which are major public wellness concerns. Overeating is a societal job which means that the job has taken different dimensions throughout history. It has been defined and understood in different ways depending on the altering political, societal, and economic conditions. Even during the mediaeval period, gorging was recognized but it was non understood the same manner it is understood today. This implies that understanding of the job has been altering with clip and though it was recognized as a mark of health in the yesteryear, it is considered a major wellness job today. Gorging today affects people across the societal demographic divide. The job is today compounded by societal values and wellness concerns. The authorities has put in topographic point different plans with an purpose of extenuating the consequence of the job but small has been achieved. Despite the current apprehension of gorging as a societal and wellness job, and the plans that have been instituted to extenuate its effects, it still remains a major societa l and wellness concerns in the universe today. Historical Background of Gorging Overeating is a societal job that has changed over clip. Since the mediaeval period, gorging has been understood in different ways depending on the altering economic, societal, and political environments. The job has besides been understood in different ways depending on the dominant societal values and the altering doctrine of societal public assistance ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Definition and apprehension of the job have transformed with alterations taking topographic point in the environment. The current definition and apprehension of the job is really different from how it was understood during the mediaeval period. In order to specify and understand gluttony, it is of import to first expression at the historical definition and apprehension of the job. Historical apprehension of orgy eating day of the months back to the mediaeval period. At a clip when the society was extremely stratified, orgy feeding was understood as a mark of surpluss ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . It was chiefly practiced by those who had surplus to eat, chiefly those in the upper category. This means that the apprehension of gorging during that clip was chiefly engraved in indulgence since these were merely those who could afford plentifulness of nutrient who ate more. Interestingly, gorging was non recognized as a wellness job during the in-between ages. Historical histories have revealed that the ancient Greece and Arabia had texts which showed description of binging and purging which means both were recognized at that clip. Besides in ancient Rome, historiographers have shown the being of constructed ‘vomitoriums ‘ – topographic points where persons or feasters threw up nutrient. This is a mark of being of gorging even at those ancient times . It has recorded that Roman Emperor Claudis who ruled between 10 B.C. to A.D. 54 and Vitellius who ruled between A.D 15 to A.D. 19 were both bulimic. These historical histories affirm to the fact that eating upsets were recognized every bit early as 10 B.C. Although it was non recognized, gorging was the chief cause of fleshiness in ancient times. Obesity, which consequences from gorging, is an antique job whose perceptual experience has changed over clip. During ancient civilisation, fleshiness was perceived in much different ways merely like other gorging upsets. For illustration, antediluvian Egyptians considered fleshiness as disease. There have been wall drawing in Egypt which depicted fleshiness as an unwellnesss. There was besides the celebrated figurine of Venus statuettes, which depicted the image of an corpulent female trunk and which are presumed to hold played major functions in transporting out rites. Ancient Chinese besides showed that they understood the job of fleshiness and its consequence on the length of service of the job. The Aztecs steadfastly believed that fleshiness could be considered as a occult job which was affliction of Gods. Hippocrates, who is regarded as the male parent of medical specialty, recognized th at there were many sudden deceases which could be attributed to fleshiness, and this was expressed clearly in his Hagiographas. However, this perceptual experience changed from topographic point to topographic point. In countries where nutrient was scarce, gorging and eventful fleshiness were considered as marks and symbols of wealth and a higher societal position. In some African civilizations, brides were plumped up in order to fix them for kid bearing period. Before a nuptials, a bride was plumped up until she reached the expected weight to help her to bear a kid. This shows that gorging and fleshiness were perceived in different ways. However, serious focal point on the prevalence of eating upsets did non take topographic point until the 19th and twentieth century. At the clip, there was great scientific progress which provided for research model to transport out surveies to understand the being of these diseases. For illustration, it was in 1979 that a British head-shrinker, Gerald Russell, made official description of being of binge-eating syndrome. He is the 1 who gave it its current scientific name, binge-eating syndrome nervosa. He had carried out a scientific survey between 1972 and 1978 ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . What sets apart the description of Russell from those of ancient Greece and Arabia is that Russell identified that binge-eating syndrome was carried out in order to cut weight, while the ancient surveies did non place the ground for being of binging and binge-eating syndrome. Throughout history, gluttony has been perceived in different ways. This perceptual experience has changed greatly with altering times, particularly in the class of 1900 ‘s. For illustration, Gallic interior decorator Paul Poiret showed that gorging and eventful fleshiness were unstylish. Poiret designed skin-revealing adult females apparels in order to uncover the organic structure image. In the class of the nineteenth century, the rate of fleshiness continued to increase at an dismaying rate as a consequence of different factors, among them change in feeding forms, particularly gorging and altering life style. Despite the historical records of being of orgy feeding, it had non been recognized as a wellness job until 1959. In 1959 head-shrinker and research worker Albert Stunkard foremost described gorging or orgy feeding as a societal job ( Cooper and Fairburn, 2003 ) . He foremost described it as ‘Night Eating Syndrome ‘ and later the term Binge Eating Disorder was used to depict gorging behavior that did non hold nocturnal constituent. This meant that the job was recognized as a societal job merely in twentieth century despite its being for many old ages. Although the job has been observed for a figure of old ages, there has non been any scientific survey that looked into the tendencies of gorging. At the clip Stunkard described the job, he had observed at that place was increasing figure of people who were going overweight. He noted that fleshy persons had more incidents of gorging compared to the remainder of the population ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . The clinical observation convinced Stunkard that gorging was someway related to fleshiness and lone persons with fleshiness showed perennial episodes of gorging. With addition in the figure of corpulent persons owing to the altering life style, it was easy for Stunkard to associate the prevalence form and the hazard it posed to the general population. Since so, there have been several surveies that have looked into the job in greater inside informations. From the perceptual experience of a mark of surpluss during ancient times, orgy feeding was now recognized as a wellness issues ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Since Stunkard recognized the job in fleshy persons, it was non recognized by the medical governments in the state despite a figure of attendant surveies that have outlined the effects of the job. It was non until 1994 when Binge Eating Disorder ( BED ) was introduced in the DSM-IV standards. However it was introduced as a proviso psychiatric upset that required further research. It is of import to understand that during 1950s when the job was recognized as a major societal job, there were a batch of alterations that were taking topographic point in the societal, political, and economical environment. This period marked the terminal of the Second World War and the universe was pulling the attending off from war and political spat to concentrate on societal and wellness public assistance of the population. The terminal of the Second World War ushered the universe into a new epoch that was more focussed on societal public assistance of the people. Since the bend of the century, the universe has been much occupied with First and Second World War and the Great Depression that have wiped away wealth and people scrambled for nutrient rations. This means during the period after the terminal of the Second World War, people could entree more nutrient. Change in engineering has been recognized as another factor that contributed to increased incidence of gorging ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . The altering nature of life, chiefly driven by engineering, led to nutrient procedure engineerings that made nutrient available outside the kitchen. Traditionally, nutrient was merely found and prepared in the kitchen which meant that people had limited opportunities of feeding. However, the debut of modern nutrient processing engineering, particularly with the outgrowth of fast and convenient nutrient, people have more opportunities of feeding and this factor contributed to incidence of gorging. With handiness of nutrient in different public infinites, and with outgrowth of nutrient ironss like MacDonald ‘s, which have been established in about every corner, people are encouraged to eat more frequently ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . The increased incidence of gorging led to lifting instances of fleshiness and this was one of the factors that drew attending to the issue of gorging. Changes in societal life, particularly in working conditions, were another factor that contributed to the increased instances of gorging. Unlike times when people labored for hours in the field, the outgrowth of office occupations where manual occupations are left to machines encourages people to eat more ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . As the figure of working hours reduced and more work was taken over by machines, people had more clip to loosen up and eat. Even at work, the outgrowth of fast nutrient meant that people could transport nutrient to work and continued to eat while working. There were a figure of alterations at place that besides marked increased instances of gorging. The outgrowth of telecasting sets and other amusement devices stationed at place meant that people spent more hours watching Television while eating. At the terminal, they ate more than they would hold eaten if they were non watching Television ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Apart from positive impacts of technological promotion and wealth creative activity like holding TVs at place, there are other psychological alterations that come with alteration in life that have been pointed out as possible causes of gorging. As people became busy and pre-occupied and the economic system changed, the degree of emphasis kept on lifting ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . High degrees of emphasis and depression have besides been pointed out as possible grounds why people engaged in gorging. Research grounds has shown that compared to the yesteryear, economic crisis of modern clip, where life is centered on econ omic public presentation, has contributed to high degrees of emphasis. It is hence apparent that throughout history, definition and apprehension of gorging has dramatically changed in line with emerging societal, political, and economic tendencies. Earlier definition of gluttony is rather different from the modern 1. Binge feeding has changed from a mark of wealth in ancient times to a wellness job that is attributed to the alterations in the modern life style. While the gluttony and fleshiness have remained a job for the wealth in earlier times, most of the corpulent persons presents are found in the center and low category. Description of the gluttony in young persons and striplings Since the 1950s, gorging and attach toing corpulence and fleshiness complications have become major public wellness concerns in the United States. As has been the tradition with the United States authorities, it responds with policies aimed at extenuating the consequence of the job but seldom puts in topographic point policies to forestall the job. Since gorging was noted as a public wellness concern in 1950s, it took the authorities several old ages before any policy was put in topographic point to turn to the issue. With clip, gorging, coupled with altering life manner including reduced battle in physical exercisings has led to overweight and fleshiness, which are considered to be the major public wellness issues confronting the state ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . Binge eating upset is presently a major job that cuts across the whole population. Each and every twelvemonth, there are 1000000s of Americans who succumb to different endangering feeding upsets, but orgy feeding remains a m ajor job across the whole population. It is estimated that about 16 million Americans suffer from one or more eating upsets including anorexia nervosa and binge-eating syndrome nervosa ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . However, a higher figure, 25 million Americans, are documented to endure from orgy eating. Interestingly, the job is more marked in adult females than in work forces. Statisticss shows that more than 90 % of those who are affected by these jobs are adult females ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) . Unlike other wellness jobs that have been known to happen with age, either really early or really tardily in life, eating upsets occur in the in-between life. It has been documented that approximately 86 % of persons who report eating upsets are somewhat below the age of 20, which means the job starts developing early in life. For illustration, research findings show that approximately 11 % of high school pupils have one or more eating upsets, with orgy eating being a major job ( Raderprogr ams, 2010 ) . However, research shows conflicting consequences. A figure of surveies have pointed out that the prevalence of orgy feeding is non clear in the population. This is because the prevalence differs from topographic point to put depending on the societal economic position. However, it has been shown that the prevalence of orgy feeding in the general population ranges between 1-3 % ( Bull, 2004 ) . As was earlier observed in 1950s, orgy feeding remains a major job confronting fleshy and corpulent persons. A figure of surveies have clearly shown that among the corpulence and corpulent persons, orgy eating Texas Rangers from 25 % and more ( Bull, 2004 ) . In striplings and young person, orgy feeding has been described as a major wellness concern. Surveies have shown that doomed of control feeding or BED is prevailing in immature people non merely in the United States but in the whole universe ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . Binge feeding is associated cross-sectionally with adiposeness in kids and young person and has been identified as a major factor predisposing them to overweight and fleshiness. Overeating is hence a major societal job non merely in grownups but in young persons. There are several grounds why the society is acquiring concerned with the job of gorging. Since the 2nd half of the twentieth century, increasing incidence of gluttony has attracted public attending owing to the societal and wellness branching on the general population. Overeating was recognized as a job associated with fleshiness. The ground why the society is going more concerned with increasing incidence of gorging can be related to the lifting instances of corpulence and fleshiness in the population. Obesity is an epidemic in the United States that affects people across the societal demographic divide. It is estimated that about three quarters or accurately more than 64 % of American grownups are overweight while 26 % are corpulent ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . The figure of corpulent people in the United States has grown steadily from 19.4 % in 1997 to the recent 26.6 % in 2007 ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) . By 2015, it is estimated that approximately 75 % of the United States population will be overweight while 41 % will be corpulent ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) .While fleshiness has been considered a job for the ripening persons, demographic prevalence portrays a distressing tendency as kids and striplings shows increasing instances of corpulence and fleshiness. In the last two decennaries, it has been observed that kids and young persons are going victims of complications associated with gluttony, with 15-25 % of American kids considered corpulent while the figure keeps on turning ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . Worrying tendencies show that one in every five kids is fleshy and has a higher likeliness of going corpulent. By any criterions, these statistics are worrying and name for action from the concerned stakeholders. The above statistics clearly reveals why gluttony is considered a major public wellness concern. What is more badgering is the observation that overweight and corpulent kids and teens are likely to go corpulent when they grow up to grownups. This means that there is likeliness of holding a coevals of corpulent grownups in the cause of clip if nil is done ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Although there are multiple beginnings which contributed to overweight and fleshiness, gorging has been singled out as the chief cause of fleshiness in kids and teens. A recent survey that was carried out by World Health Organization Collaboration Center for Obesity Prevention found out that while research workers have long faulted lessening in physical activity as the chief cause of fleshiness, addition in gorging should instead be pointed out as the chief cause of fleshiness. For kids, gorging instead than other intensifying factors is the chief cause of fleshiness ( RWJF, 2010 ) . If the above tend ency is anything to travel by, so gorging should be a major concern for all persons in the society and so, it is a call for the authorities to come up with steps to extenuate the effects of gorging in kids. There are many societal, economic, political, and media forces that have garnered to specify gorging as a major societal job. Socially, the perceptual experience of gluttony has been altering with clip and today it is no longer perceived as a mark of wealth and surpluss but instead as a societal job. Research has shown that kids who are overweigh and corpulent are likely to be bullied or face cynicism from their equals. They are perceived to be irresponsible, which means they suffer socially. This means that gorging is no longer accepted as a societal pattern as it leads to overweight and fleshiness ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Economically, people are going good off and the life criterions have truly improved. However researches point out that gorging is non an economic job as it cuts across the divide, which means even kids and teens populating in low income countries are enduring from the job. This means that there are more implicit in economic factors, like the theoretical account of economic system that lays less accents on difficult work that increases Calorie ingestion which has conspired to worsen the job. Political forces that have lead to acknowledgment of the job include authorities policies that have defined the issue. In 1994, the authorities took a bold measure to include BED into the DSM-IV standards which means it was already recognized as a wellness job. Through the relevant organisations, the authorities has funded a figure of plans aimed at extenuating the job ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . However, the most instrumental force that has shaped gorging as a societal job is the media. Now and so, the media carries out runs that are aimed at maintaining kids out of gorging. The media has been critical of transnational corporations like McDonalds which have encouraged gluttony. On the other manus, media portraiture of desired organic structure size, particularly for adolescent misss, forces them to prosecute in weight loss plans that lead to emotion al orgy feeding. The public apprehension of gorging is coming to a convergence. As has been reviewed earlier, ancient apprehension of gorging was rather different from the modern apprehension. There were some societies that encouraged gorging in adult females to give them strength to bear kids while in some societies, gorging was perceived to come with wellness effects. Presents, with the increased apprehension of effect of gorging in mention to overweight and fleshiness, public definition of the corpulence portrays it as a major psychological job. Harmonizing to DSM-IV standards, orgy feeding is defined as a upset marked by eating larger than usual sum of nutrient in a short period of clip, most specific, within a period of two hours. It is lack of control on one ‘s eating behaviour or eating that can non be controlled ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . In this definition, there are of import values and political orientations that have are put into consideration. Most of import, the definition p uts into consideration the wellness value in belief that while feeding is good ; it may come with eventful wellness effects. Concretely, gorging in young persons and stripling is understood as a psychological and behavioural job that comes with sedate effects particularly fleshy and fleshiness. However, gorging is still understood in different footings by different societal sections. For some parents, gorging in their kids may be a mark of growing in appetency ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Parents understand that throughout the life span, kids feeding behavior supports on altering and hence gorging in striplings corresponds to foods demands in their organic structure, which means they do non see it to be a job. However, for others, gorging is already recognized as a major wellness job and hence they are making their best to help their kids to get the better of it. Prevalence forms show that Binge Eating Disorder affects 1000000s of people in the United States, particularly young persons and striplings. However, the job is more marked in females than males. In the United States, the job affects 3.5 % females compared to 2 % males ( Decaluwe and Braet, 2003 ) . The job is besides more marked in persons who are fleshy and corpulent as more than 30 % of persons seeking weight decrease intervention have shown marks of BED ( Decaluwe and Braet, 2003 ) . The fact that orgy feeding is twice common in females than males shows that the job is non related to caloric demands as assumed by most parents. The most annihilating consequence of orgy feeding is that it leads to wellness complications like corpulence and fleshiness. Binge eating leads to increased adiposeness in kids and grownups which increases incidence of corpulence and fleshiness. Since the job cuts across the societal demographic divide, including affluent people and those from low income co untries, there are no societal unfairnesss which are associated with the job. By and large, it can be recognized as a job associated with addition in wealth, modern nutrient processing engineering, and alterations in different domains of life ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Social value and political political orientations have impacted otherwise on the manner the job is viewed. As societal value keeps on altering, so has the public perceptual experience of corpulence and fleshiness. For illustration, traditionally, people with large organic structures who can presently be categorized corpulent were valued and viewed every bit good up. However, this has changed with the altering media perceptual experience of ideal organic structure weight. If any, there are few persons in the society who want to keep large organic structures ( Decaluwe and Braet, 2003 ) . This means that if corpulence is being viewed negatively in the society, orgy feeding, which is a causative factor for corpulence and corpulent conditions are besides viewed negatively by the people. Politically, there has been less authorities concern on fleshiness and corpulence until late when the authorities took bold stairss in face of public menace posed by corpulence and fleshiness incidences t o establish steps to cover with the job, for illustration inclusion of gorging in DSM-IV ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Overweight and fleshiness are tied to the political political orientation of capitalist economy which is specifying the modern society. In capitalist economy, persons amass more, and indulge in civilization of consumerism hence driving frontward the civilization of gorging ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Gorging can be explained utilizing different societal theories. One of the recent theories that have been used to explicate gluttony is reversal theory which explains gorging as a response to high-tension emphasis ( Sue et al, 1998 ) . This theory has shown that adult females who engage in weight decrease plan suffer from tenseness and emphasis which forces them to prosecute in gorging. The same theoretical account has besides been expressed by psychosomatic theory which shows that emotional eating consequences from confusion and apprehensiveness related to emotional provinces that are in bend related to hunger and repletion ( Terry, 2005 ) . Another theory that explains gorging is addiction theory which suggest that when one habituates or adjusts a to nutrient cues, one is less likely to acquire satisfied and keeps on devouring nutrient ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . In line with this theory, societal acquisition theory besides shows that gorging is a erudite behaviour that is lea rned due to physical surrounding and interactions. Cognitive theories have pointed out that gorging is profoundly rooted in cognitive procedure which means it is a cognitively goaded procedure. This means that the encephalon is motivated to eat more and more with no feeling of repletion ( Terry, 2005 ) . In mention to the above theories, it can be deduced that there are biological, societal, and psychological causes of orgy feeding. In biological causes, it has been revealed that organic structure parts and endocrines like hypothalamus which control appetency may neglect to direct right message for hungriness and comprehensiveness and therefore lead to gorging. Psychological beginnings have shown that depression and orgy feeding are closely linked to each other. The U.S Department of Health and Human Services shows that more than half of orgy feeders are depressed or have suffered marks of depression in life ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . On societal factors, it has been shown that societ al force per unit area adds shame on crack addict feeders but this lone fuels their emotional feeding ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Environmental factors like parental pattern of usage of nutrient to conform kids fuels binge eating. A causal concatenation that explains pathway to gorging may be constructed as follows: Ideology/Values -Social influence – desired organic structure size, equal influence -Economic influence – alteration in working spiels, convenient and fast nutrient, less physical work -Media influence – force per unit area on desired organic structure size Positive influence Increased nutrient consumption due to positive influence like handiness of nutrient, eating while watching Television, and others Emotional feeding Triggered by stress/depression Effectss Corpulence Fleshiness Insomnia Relationship jobs Suicidal ideas Depression and anxiousness Gorging causes many wellness related physical, emotional, and societal jobs, including corpulence and fleshiness, emphasis, insomnia, self-destructive ideas, and many others. Depression, anxiousness, and sometimes substance maltreatment have been pointed out to be possible side effects of orgy feeding ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Binge eating besides comes with societal jobs like intervention relationship and calling. In footings of effects and benefits, gorging can be looked from two angles, from the point of position of those who benefit and those who suffer from the job. To get down with, there are much more people who suffer from the job than those who benefit from it. Those who suffer from the job include persons who are enduring the effects of such jobs like corpulence and fleshiness, close household and relates who are related to the person and besides suffer from the job, the authorities which has to incur one million millions of dollars in handling complications associated with the job, and many others ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) . On the other manus, those who benefit from the job include concerns which deal with nutrient and others like pharmaceuticss which sell medical addendums to cover with complications of corpulence and fleshiness. Presently, there are many plans which are dedicated to extenuation of the job. It is of import to observe that most of these plans have taken the attack of supplying instruction to young persons and striplings on causes, effects, dangers, and ways to forestall gorging. While the authorities has instituted such policies as school eating policy that encourage healthy feeding, most of the plans are run by the private sector in concurrence with the authorities, most of them bing in their ain microenvironment. Some of these plans include Focus Adolescent Services, The Center- A Place of Hope, Eating Disorder Hope, and many others. These plans have used the most accessible information airing media, chiefly through the cyberspace to make as many young persons and striplings as possible. How to cite Overeating In Youths And Adolescents Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Role models Essay Example For Students

Role models Essay IntroductionToday, sport stars and other athletes are looked up to by all ages. Everyone loves them. They appear on television, there as fame as film stars, and do this with the entire world watching. No wonder we make heroes out of our favorites. They are seen, as heroes because they can do things that most of us cant. But if you examine athletes while theyre not on the court or on the field, you can see what they are like in every dimension. Athletes have many positive and negative sides that affect their public face and both benefit and harm their abilities to become role models and they encourage there fans to become like them rather positive or negative. Today, athletes are known for wealth, privilege, and fame, because of their talent, salary, and positions as leaders, its inevitable that we admire them. We can learn quite a lot from role models like determination and confidence because we try to be like them, you have to love a sport in order to do it well. When we look at athletes, normally you would say that they do everything good and positive, thats how they are when they are on TV or something, but real life do as much bad as they do good. In the news all the time, we hear about people like Stan Collymore or Roy Keane had a fight or something, it will not only affect there reputation but it will make children or even adults that look up to them behave like them. Role Models could give a good impression to someone and make their parents or someone proud but they could also give people bad impressions like taking drugs or having lots of alcohol. I have made a table below of a list of role models that give good impressions and the ones who give bad impressions. Positive Impression Negative ImpressionThorpe MaradonaRonaldo Hidetoshi NakataGary Liniker Paul MersonTony Adams Eric CantonaCasiraghi Stan CollymoreJohn FashinuBruce GobblarZidaneRomarioWell your probably thinking why these people are positive or negative role models, so heres a brief explanation what I think they are positive or negative. Positive ImpressionsThorpe, because it he won all medals that he was in for swimming, he was a good athlete to look up to. Casiraghi, I say that he is a good role model, because is still injured and still gets paid, plays for Chelsea but loves to play football so he wants to leave the club and join any team even lower divisions. Gary Liniker, he was one of Englands best footballers and as far as we know he hasnt done anything bad in his life. Tony Adams, an Arsenal defender, you would probably think he is a bad impression because he use to drink a lot, but I say he is a good impression because he stopped drinking for the sake of his health, career and sport. Negative ImpressionsMaradona, he is known as one of the worlds greatest footballers of all time, but he gives a really bad impression because people tend to copy who they look up to and Maradona takes a lot of drugs and cheated in football, using his hands instead of head. Hidetoshi Nakata, Japans first player to play abroad and Japans best player was not really a good impression because in the World Cup he wasnt really bothered to sing his own National Anthem and in Copa America Japan was invited but he rejected the International Callup. Eric Cantona, former Manchester United player, because he use to foul a lot in football and done a flying kick at someone on live T.V. .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 , .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 .postImageUrl , .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 , .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275:hover , .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275:visited , .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275:active { border:0!important; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275:active , .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275 .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uda8c289ba3c7300e65465887b97b9275:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Islam 2 EssayStan Collymore, because slapped his girlfriend. John Fashinu, because he use to set-up matches so he could score lots of goals and win. Bruce Gobblar, former Liverpool goalkeeper, because people use to pay him to let goals in and lose. Zidane, Juventus footballer, because he wanted to leave he told everyone his wife wanted to go to Spain so he could leave the club. Romario, was one of Brazils top strikers, in my opinion he is a bad role model, because he use to always bunk the training sessions and sometimes not even attending football matches.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Future of technology free essay sample

Future of technology (advantages and disadvantages) BY alona007 From day to day, our world has been changed gradually from one condition to another. Nowadays, technology has advanced in huge leaps and bounds. We cannot imagine the world without technological advances such as computer, televisions, and machines and so on. However there are some advantages and disadvantages of technology. First, technologies play an important role in society because it makes life easier to live on and makes time less consuming. People do not have to do all the ard labor anymore. For example, many people have washing machines, clothes driers and dishwashers, so the amount of energy needed to wash and dry clothes and wash dishes is greatly reduced. Second, medical science is very progressive and saves many innocent lives. Medical treatment has been going well with the help of technology. Nowadays, hospitals use technology as assistance for operations. However, technology also brings harm to our society. We will write a custom essay sample on Future of technology or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The overuse and development of factory industries causes pollution to our world. For example the use of cars and achines causes smoke that affects the quality of our air and destroys our ozone layer and as a result people suffer illnesses like cancer. Another disadvantage is that technologies create financial problems in families because most technologies are expensive. For example people that do not have a washing machine will have to wash clothes by hand which is time consuming. In conclusion, we cannot stop technology from developing in our society. Nowadays, we as people rely on technology everyday to make our lives simpler. Without modern technology our world would be a tough place to live in.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Average AP Scores for Every AP Exam

Average AP Scores for Every AP Exam SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Taking an AP class this year? You might be wondering about average AP scores or what good AP scores are for certain classes. Or if you are thinking about taking AP exams in the future, you might want to know which exams have the highest passing rates. In this post, we will break down the average score for each AP test, as well as the average passing rate. We will also show you how to interpret this info and how to use it to make decisions about your schedule. Average AP Score by Test Instead of giving you an overall average score for all AP tests, we will show you the average score for every AP exam. We break it down by test because every AP test is different. It’s important to know the average score for whichever test you are taking or thinking about taking. We will also explore how you can use this info- and learn why the exams with the highest passing rates are not the easiest! But first, the data. The table contains the national average scores for each AP exam from 2018. Remember that AP exams are scored from 1 to 5, with 3 and higher considered passing rates. We have sorted the exams from highest average scoreto lowest. Take a look: AP Test Average Score Chinese Language 4.31 Calculus BC 3.74 Japanese Language 3.70 Spanish Language 3.69 Studio Art Drawing 3.65 Physics C EM 3.60 Physics C Mechanics 3.55 Studio Art 2-D Design 3.48 Spanish Language (Standard) 3.45 French Language 3.32 German Language 3.31 Economics - Micro 3.21 Computer Science A 3.18 Music Theory 3.18 Research 3.17 French Language (Standard) 3.16 Seminar 3.15 Italian Language 3.14 Psychology 3.14 Gov. and Politics - Comparative 3.12 Computer Science Principles 3. Studio Art 3-D Design 3. Chinese Language (Standard) 3.06 Spanish Literature 3.06 Calculus AB 3.05 Art History 3.04 Physics 2 2.97 German Language (Standard) 2.96 Economics - Macro 2.96 Latin 2.94 Japanese Language (Standard) 2.89 European History 2.89 Italian Language (Standard) 2.88 Statistics 2.88 Biology 2.87 English Language 2.83 Chemistry 2.80 World History 2.78 Human Geography 2.72 Gov. and Politics - US 2.70 United States History 2.66 Environmental Science 2.63 English Literature 2.57 Physics 1 2.36 Via College Board. Check out the link for a complete distribution of scores for each AP exam. Want to get a perfect 5 on your AP exam and an A in class? We can help. PrepScholar Tutors is the world's best tutoring service. We combine world-class expert tutors with our proprietary teaching techniques. Our students have gotten A's on thousands of classes, perfect 5's on AP tests, and ludicrously high SAT Subject Test scores. Whether you need help with science, math, English, social science, or more, we've got you covered. Get better grades today with PrepScholar Tutors. One very important fact to note is that high average scores don't correspond to the easiest exams! Chinese, Calculus BC, Japanese, and Spanish Language are the AP tests with the highest average scores, but they are all known to be quite difficult. Also note that native speakers, or students with experience living abroad, tend to take the AP language exams, which inflates their average scores (for the average of those who learned in a classroom, check the "Standard" score). Furthermore, some of the tests with the lowest averages are often regarded as some the easiest APs- Human Geography, Environmental Science, and US Government. So why are their passing rates so low? This is because freshmen and sophomores might take these as their first-ever AP classes. Even though the content is easier than, say, Calculus, all AP exams are tough and could be hard for a younger student to do well on. It’s also possible that students simply don’t study enough for the â€Å"easier† exams because they underestimate them. All AP tests are difficult, even if some are easier than others. To sum up, the average score can say more about the students taking the exam than the exam itself. Don’t sign up for BC Calculus just because the average score is super high. And by the same token, don’t avoid AP Environmental Science because the average score is relatively low. Focus on your own strengths and interests when signing up for AP classes! What's a Good AP Score? Beyond the basic averages, it’s helpful to have some context about what a "good" AP score is. A score of 3 or higher is generally considered good, because that means you passed the exam! A 4 is considered very good, and a 5 is especially impressive since it is the highest score. Also keep in mind that every college sets its own policy about AP credit. Some schools only give credit for scores of 4 or 5. Check the AP credit database to find out the AP credit policy for schools you're interested in. But with that in mind, let’s look at which 2019 AP exams have the highest passing rates- a.k.a. rates of scores over 3. We also note the percentage of students who get a 5, the highest score. Exam Name Passing Rate (3+) 5 Rate Studio Art: Drawing 91.1% 20.8% Spanish Language and Culture 89% 24.9% Chinese Language and Culture 88.3% 57.2% Studio Art: 2-D Design 86.4% 21% Calculus BC 81.5% 43.2% Physics C: Electricity Magnetism 81.1% 35.9% Seminar 80.7% 6.8% French Language and Culture 76.7% 15.5% Research 76.2% 10.8% Japanese Language and Culture 75% 38.2% Computer Science Principles 72.7% 13.6% Spanish Literature 71.9% 9.1% Physics C: Mechanics 71.1% 34.6% German Language and Culture 70.5% 18.4% Studio Art: 3-D Design 70.1% 10.1% Computer Science A 69.9% 27% Microeconomics 68.4% 22.2% Gov. and Politics - Comparative 66.2% 22.2% Biology 64.6% 7.1% Italian Language and Culture 64.6% .8% Psychology 64.4% 20.2% Art History 63.9% 12% Physics 2 63.5% 12.6% Music Theory 63.4% 20.9% Latin 63.1% 13.1% Statistics 59.2% 14.5% European History 58.4% .7% Calculus AB 58.3% 18.9% Macroeconomics 57.9% 17.6% World History 56% 8.7% Gov. and Politics - United States 55.2% 12.9% English Language and Composition 55.1% 10.1% Chemistry 54.6% 10.7% United States History 54.3% 12.1% English Literature and Composition 50.1% 6.2% Environmental Science 49.6% 9.5% Human Geography 49.1% 10.7% Physics 1 44.6% 6.2% Source: College Board. For language rates, "Total" includes all students, while "Standard" includes only those students who didn't indicate they speak this language at home or spent more than four weeks studying it abroad. Again, note that some of the toughest exams- like Chinese and BC Calculus- have very high passing rates. Notice also the exams with very low 5 rates (below 10%), including Physics 1, English Literature, and Environmental Science. It will look especially impressive if you can earn a 5 on these tests! So Which AP Classes Should You Take? The goal of taking an AP class is to get a good grade in it and also pass the AP test. Doing both these things will show colleges that you can handle college-level material, and scoring high enough on the AP test can help you get college credit. You want to take AP classes you think you'll do well in. However, be careful about signing up for exams based on their average scores alone. As we saw above, some of the toughest exams (like Physics, AB and BC Calculus, and many of the foreign languages) have the highest passing rates, and some of the easiest exams (like Environmental Science and Human Geography) have the lowest passing rates. This means you shouldn't sign up for AP classes based on just their passing rates. Do some research before signing up for an AP class and make sure it’s the right fit for you. Ask older classmates how difficult they've found certain AP classes. Also, think about your own academic strengths and the classes you enjoy the most. If you love math and have always been good at it, you can probably score well on an AP Calculus exam even though they're known for being difficult. Also be careful not to overload yourself! If you cram too many AP classes into your schedule, it will be harder to pass the exams. Finally, note that these are the national averages. The passing rates for different subjects could be very different at your school. If you want to find out the passing rates for these classes at your school, talk to your guidance counselor and they can help you find that info. For example, some teachers have passing rates for their AP classes above 90%. If you have a teacher like that at your school, and they teach an AP subject you are interested in, you will likely have a very high chance of passing. One last word of advice: check out our scoring guide to see how AP scores are calculated to help you develop a target raw score to help you pass. Understanding how the exam is scored is a very important step in preparing for AP tests. What's Next? Learn about what AP Exams are like and how to avoid fatigue. Check out our guide on AP test length for exclusive tips! Want help deciding which AP classes will be easiest for you to take? We will show you which factors to consider to find the easiest AP classes for your schedule. Trying to decide between the ACT and SAT? Read our guide to decide which is best for you- and learn why it’s best to just focus on one test. Get tips on the SAT from our 1600 Full Scorer- you can also put the same techniques to use when studying for AP exams, especially the multiple choice sections! Get advice on writing SAT and ACT essays. If you’re going for perfection, you can even learn how to write a perfect SAT essay or a perfect ACT essay. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Marketing strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Marketing strategy - Essay Example When organizations pay emphasis and use its resources towards a small part of the consumers, they are involved in the business of market niche and by serving this portion of the market; businesses can perform better and gain an added advantage over their competitors. The process of market segmentation lies between an organization’s marketing strategy that targets a huge market by producing goods and services that satisfy the needs and wants of a huge market or the overall market and a marketing strategy that is used to serve the needs and wants of individual consumers by producing goods and services that are unique and only appeal to a specific portion of the overall market. Those organizations and marketers who follow niche marketing strategy and work on their market segmentation practices are of the belief that one product does not has the ability to satisfy a huge market as consumers have different needs and wants. Secondly, they are even aware that an organization can neve r have enough resources to satisfy needs and wants of consumers on the individual level. This is why marketers are involved in the process of marketing segmentation and they divide a huge market into smaller segments and then the marketers create marketing strategy as well as products that satisfy the needs and wants of a particular segment. Market segments are created while giving importance to the characteristics of consumers, these characteristics are regarded as segmentation bases and can be utilized to create segments of a market, and the most commonly used segmentation bases include: consumer’s age, the place they live in, their income levels and the purchasing behaviors (STEVENS, 2012, p.32). There are several strategies of marketing that a marketer can use for his/her product, one such strategy is recognized as marketing at the mass level, and this is even recognized by the name of undifferentiated marketing (FERRELL, 2011, p.168). Such a marketing strategy

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Taiwan or hong kong (asian) rituals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Taiwan or hong kong (asian) rituals - Essay Example It has to be believed that the concrete religious practices, such as community festivals, calendrical festivals, rites of cosmic renewals, and family oriented and individual religious rituals of Taiwan are culminated from the fusion of local and national traditions. Thus, it is an attempt at unraveling intricacies of rituals in the sphere of: (1) how does the ritual reflect the values of a community; (2) what are the underlying consequences of the ritual; (3) what is the stated purpose of the ritual; and (4) what behavior does this ritual make it seem natural or normal, in the socio-cultural Taiwanese perspective. Anthropologists and sociologists are interested in ritual studies, because discussions about rituals have key cultural importance and social concern. They take ritual events as â€Å"a mirror to reflect the larger problems of particular interests in an ethnographic case that become amenable to analysts† (Husken). Rituals are viewed to act as powerful mechanisms for constructions of the self and the other, of personal and collective identities, and are generally held to have benign effects. They bring core cultural values, ideology, knowledge and dramatic style to bear on real social relationships, problems and difficulties, often at key moments of transition or intensification. Social scientists view that ritual action is a conscious social mechanism of symbolic actions that reinforces the status quo by overwhelming the practitioner with a feeling of moral obligation to adhere to societal sentiments, which stress the importance of maintaining social structure.In short, ritual s are often at the centre of the play of social and cultural forces operating in a society. The cultural attributes of marriage, death, as well as religious practices are considered fundamental to the cultural make-up and identity of a country. Taiwan is a country where past, present and future

Monday, November 18, 2019

Human Resourse Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Human Resourse Management - Essay Example Every organization must ensure that they tell the employees what they are interested in hearing rather than focuses all their energy on telling things that would fall on deaf ears. Communication is undoubtedly a two way process and both the employer and employee must participate in this two way process in order to ensure that the growth of their organization takes place. There are several important communication options available these days ranging from Emails to Faxes to Phone calls and a host of other ways. Several methods of communication have become an integral part in almost all the organizations. The most common way of communication is oral communication; this is carried out by almost every organization in the form of meetings. Conducting meetings is a very integral part of management; usually these meetings throw light upon the position of an organization and the steps required in enhancing the current position of an organization. Meetings provide an ideal platform for the emp loyees to discuss their difficulties with the organization; this promotes the theory of two way conversion within the organization. Telephone calls is another important way of communicating with the employees, both these methods come under oral communication. Planning is a very important factor in communication. It is very important to plan before making a phone call to an employee, a list of points should be made ready in order to put across important messages assertively. Most organizations prefer written communication over oral communication because written communication provides a record and employees tend to act much faster on written communication than oral commutation. There are several ways of written communication; the most popular of them include letters, faxes, emails etc. Letters play an instrumental role in putting across a message assertively. Letters must always be kept short and to the point, they must communicate what is meant to be communicated no less, no more. Th e brevity of a letter is its real strength and the same is often noticed in many cases. Fax is another option should a company choose written communication over oral communication. The use of fax has dwindled over the period of time, most organizations prefer sending emails to their employees than sending them fax messages. Email has perhaps become the most popular form of written communication these days and it I one of the fastest methods of communication and this is exactly why most organizations depend on this very heavily. Group projects can easily be handled under autocratic leadership, the use of technology and communication becomes inevitable when it comes to group work and autocratic leadership ensures that all employees adhere to the rules and regulation and complete their respective tasks. A person with Autocratic leadership ability must take over should an organization decide to make their employees work in a group, the communication process is ought to become complicate d but an autocratic leader is expected to handle the same with minimum fuss. The strategic pay literature is predominantly controlled by two perspectives namely, the best fit and the best practice. The best fit perspective highlights the importance of competitive advantage by bringing in align the firm’

Friday, November 15, 2019

Crimes Of The Rich And Powerful Criminology Essay

Crimes Of The Rich And Powerful Criminology Essay White collar offenders get away with their crimes easily and rich get richer poor get . It seems obvious that power inequality affects the quality of peoples lives. The rich and powerful live better than the poor and powerless. Power inequality affects the type of deviant activities likely to be engaged in (Barak 2000). The powerful are more likely to perpetrate profitable crimes such as corporate crime while the powerless people are more likely to commit unprofitable crimes such as homicide and assault and power can also be an importance cause of deviance. For example more likely for bank executives to cheat customers quietly than for jobless persons to rob banks violently. Crime committed by respectable people of high social status in the course of their work and this is called white collar crime (Sutherland 1961 ) white collar crime occurs at several levels. Embezzlement for example it is committed by employees against companies and companies also commit white collar crime too when they engage in pricing fixing, sell defective products, evade taxes pr pollute the environment. When companies are the perpetrators white collar crime is often referred to as corporate crime and sometimes corporate crime is more closely parallels organized crime than it does anything else. For example accountants ,auditors, and executives working for Enron corporation worked together to hide the companys debts exaggerate its profits and pull in money from investors whom they tricked into buying their stock for much more than it was worth (Coleman2002) White collar crime brings heavy costs to society most scholars and law enforcement officials believe that the money loss due to corporate crime dwarfs that lost through street crime in addition to the economic cost there are social costs as well white collar crime can cost lives when tainted medicines or dangerous cars are sold , safety precautions are flouted on factory lines or toxic chemicals are dumped by manufacturers into rivers and streams the cost of white collar crime go beyond the actual money involved in the crime itself. The reasons for white collar crime are similar to those for street crimes. People want more than they can legitimately get think the benefits of a crime outrun it is potential costs (Young 2009) In these days the magnitude of white collar crime in our society challenges the popular image of crime as a lower class phenomenon. Instead this appears that people of different status simly haqve different opportunities to commit crime. Those people in lower status are hardly in the position to engage in price fixing , stock manipulation and tax evation. They are in a position White collar crimes are far less likely to be offcialy investigated and prosecuted than converntional crimes. In the simplest term what occurs in the streets is more visible and more easily inveatigated than what occurs in the suite. Its hard to detect and it realy can be hard to notice if crime has accurred e.g fraud, tax fraud and shop theft there are also few good reasond that why business in UK and other companies dont want to talk about white-collar crime its because the firms may not want to admit that they have been victim of theft and this can effect on their own business they may also not want to admit that their staff committed a crime. Since crimes were attempts to gain personal advantage by force or fraud they could obviously be committed by the rich and powerful they could certainly involve force or fraud and they could clearly be committed without punishment by the state. Some doctors commit murder and doctors sometimes cheat on medicare and lawyers have been known to misuse funs entrusted to them by their clients: business executives sometimes angage in bid rigging : labor union executives sometimes embezzle funds from pension plans and also manufacturers sometimes dispose of toxic chemicals in wyas contrary to law. Other criminal activities that are often missed by official and many sociological measurements of crime are those conducted by the powerful in society (pearce, 1976) crimes of the powerful is largely those commited by rulling groups and governments, corporate crime is that crimes commited not so much by individuals but rather by boards for example chair persons and including the breaking of the Health and Safety Work Act and white collar crime that crimes committed by professional people such as tax evasion, business fraudand insider trading. White collar drimesis difficult to estimate the extent and influence of whitecollar crime on victims because all too often those who suffer the consequences of white collar crime are ignored by victimologists. Entry 2: Culture and crime Wide differences in cultural heritage and value system have a direct impact on rates of crime and it is obvious that there are many cultural differences between the America and Japan that doesnt mean that Japanese approaches to crime prevention cannot work in America (Freilich Guerette 2006). In Japan the societys emphasis on apologies and resolving disputes outside the police and the court this can effect on reporting crime, prevent crime and this leads to crime stays on low level in Japan. When we pick the robbery case is the most fearful street crime in America is much higher than Japan for example in 2002 America recorded 182 and for each robbery in Tokyo New York had 462. Robbery rates for England, Germany and France do not approach those in America but resident of those countries are still twenty to thirty times more likely to be held up than people living in Japan. Even when we think about South Korea have same similarity with geographically and culturally with Japans and closest neighbour and has robbery rates 6.5 times than Japan (Gilman Levy2005 ) culture plays important role in to control crime and prevent crime. There is also a lack of confidence in America and people likely to act as witness and they likely to report crime. While some people can effectively cope with strain some certain people have traits that may make them particularly sensitive to strain. These include an explosive temperament being overly sensitive or emotional low tolerance for adversity and poor problem solving skills. Aggressive people who have these traits are likely to have poor interpersonal skills and more likely to be treated negatively by others and their combative personalities make them feared and disliked. These people are likely to live in families whose caretakers share similar personality traits. They are also more likely to reject conventional peers and join deviant groups. In summer 2004 a dramatic murder trial took place in New York City that aptly illustrates how lower class cultural concerns the code of the streets clash with the rules and values of American culture and how deviant cultures can exist side by side with middle class culture. According to the studies the relatively high U.S. crime rates can be explained by the interrelationship between culture and institutions. The dominance of the American Dream mythology ensures that many people will develop wishes and desires for material goods that cannot be satisfied by legitimate means that people are willing to do anything to get ahead from cheating on tests to get higher grades to engaging in corporate fraud and tax evasion and those people who cannot succeed become willing to risk everything including a prison sentence(Valier 2004). American dream have a different effect on people depending on their place in the social structure. The studies shows that the American dream had a greater effect on whites than African Americans the reason is that whites may have greater expectations of material success than African Americans whose aspirations have been tempered by a long history of racial and economic deprivation. When whites experience strain they are more apt to react with anger and antisocial behaviour. At the institutional level the dominance of economic concerns weakens the informal social control exerted by the family, church and school. In my opinion these institutions have lost their ability to regulate behaviour and they have instead become a conduit for promoting material success. Parents pushing their kids to succeed at any cost and schools encourage the kids to get in to the best colleges by any means possible as well as religious institutions promote their wealth and power because religion lets you down all the time when you are keen on it too much. Entry 3: Race, ethnicity and crime I strongly not agree with the government recent policy change on immigrants. Te immigrants have faced the challenges involved in living in a new and different political and cultural environment. Many immigrants have faced discrimination in one form or another because of their colour and their inability to speak English fluently or their customs. After the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 reinforced the belief that he rights of immigrants should be limited and the government start passing a number of laws that could affect immigrants life in future emotionally and financially for example to apply for a passport you have to go through the citizenship and Naturalisation law stages in order to get your passport and it costs about  £800 per person age 18. Black people being the victims of crimes as well as the perpetrators of crime due to their position in areas of social deprivation (Newburn 2003) some poor and disadvantaged people do commit crime because they are poor and disadvantaged. Some of these people get end up staying in prisons and courts as a result. This does not mean that the poor and disadvantaged commit most crime. Black people are likely to be stopped and searched by the police and there are a higher proportion of arrests following these searches and black people receive harsher treatment in the court and in sentencing procedures. According to the Home Office statistic in June 2001 ethnic minorities for 19 percent of the male prison population (12 % black and 2% Asian) (Roberts 2003). The institutional racism operates within the criminal justice system people with different background with different religion e.g. has always been treated differently and classified as second class people within the eyes of justice. Also the Stephen Lawrence inquiry report highlighted the problem of disproportionality and indicated the discrimination was a major problem and also this research has actually pointed to racial stereotyping by the police and black people are likely to get stop and search than white people. In Stephen Lawrence case was 18 black students were hoping to become an architect and was fatally stabbed while waiting for the bus that was a racial attack but police investigation failed to bring the killers into justice this had a big influence on black community. During the early nineteenth century there was not any race and crime issue. This was not due to lack prejudice or indeed a lack of crime. It was because there were relatively few immigrants living in the UK. Black and lower class populations have the highest rates of street and index crime involvement in the UK. (Frank 2009) and Sociological theories argue that the location and experiences in the social environment are responsible for these differences in crime involvement (Calvin Gerald ). In an early contribution to the sociology of knowledge DeGre (1995) observed that all science including those disciplines not involved in the study of human society are part of the tertiary institutions of a culture being influenced by the larger constellation of stresses and strains, cultural values, technological accomplishments and needs and overall definitions of life goals that characterize the social group society and world situation in which they are operative. No one comes into the world with criminality in the way in which one is born with a certain colour of eyes and crimes committed by immigrants are more frequently prosecuted than those committed by white people because immigrants are less likely to defend themselves legally and they are less often in a position to secure a good lawyer and they are more promptly sentenced to prison and in the court stages they are likely to plead guilty to drop their sentence to a lower level this is because they are come from a different culture different belief and different laws that they faced in their own countries and there always a language barrier There is a media effect on race and ethnicity from TV news and from movies people are getting the wrong ideas on immigrants and religion. Media plays important role here in my opinion media shows the criminal act and report them to the public in a negative way rather than report them in a positive way. Because it is a personal interest of media personnel. One more importing thing as well as this if the media giving the news related to crime with fascination in this case the crime ratio of that specific crime will increase for example if in newspapers the news about terrorism is reported so frequently then in this situation the ratio of stop and search will increase according to the British Crime Survey BCS a number of stop and search has actually gone up after the 7/7 London bombing. Entry 4: Future trends The actual volume of crime in Britain has been going down for over a decade or more. Violent crime has also not risen particularly even though the media plays it up big time. The majority of offenders in prison or in front of the courts have little to do with violence and the average custodial sentence is less than 12 months. Even domestic violence is down. Certain categories of crime are higher than ever but actually not as high as previous years and quite stable e.g. gun crime. IN fact if we remove gun crime and knife incidents from the forms of violence black people especially experience we would be relatively free from physical violent crime. Other crimes seem higher than before because the Home Office has changed the police recording procedures to make the clear up and conviction rates look good but that does not mean there has been any serious increase in these crimes. But you cant talk about crime and not talk about the negative effect from the media. Older people generally and white elderly in particular have a greater fear of crime even though they have a significant less exposure to it and one reason is they are so heavily dependent on the media and less mobile and able to see for themselvesThe media in particular target this group and love to frighten the shit out of them and it plays into the party politics and games they love to play. In policing style the police agencies use current statistics to spot crime trends in order to formulate the future law enforcement plans. The internet and the continued evolution of a digital economy offer expanding possibilities for such cyber crime as credit card fraud. atm fraud, identify theft, various computer hacking crimes and even the exploitation of children through internet based child pornography. The technology will play an important role in the future of criminal investigation and police work generally. The future of effective policing will be depending on strengthening the ties between the police and the communities they serve. Because UK is a divert country the police must represent the community and must embody its values and must be perceived as acting on behalf of the community and this requires a commitment on the police leaders as well as individual officers so the public will gain the trust of the police and they will be more confident in the CJS. It is hard to think about the future of crime trends because current conditions can change rapidly as some criminologist believe that crime rates may eventually rise as the number of teens in the population increases only some of criminologist believe this. I think the age structure of society is one of the most important determinants of crime rates but the economy, technological change and social factors will play an important role in crime rate in the UK. If unemployment continues to increase which will be and more attention will be paid to white collar crime and fraud as a result of the massive business failures in the banking, security and housing industries . The race and crime conundrum may become less important as crime and victimization. When the economy turns down people who are unemployed will become more motivated to commit theft crimes and that a good economy will reduce the number of crime. The good positive way is a poor economy actually will help lower crime rates because unemployed parents are at home to supervise their children and guard their possessions. Because there is less to spend I think age in crime will effect crime rate in future because teenagers have extremely high crime rates kids who commit a lot of crime early in childhood are also likely to continue to commit crime in their adulthood. CCTV does work and works best when it is used alongside wider strategy of partnership working between the police and councils and local communities to tackle crime locally and nationally. When it comes to the crime prevention the CCTV is the most effective in reducing crime for example in car parks is most effective when targeted at vehicle crimes and it is more effective in reducing crime in the UK than in other countries. The CCTV can increase the public confidence and the public will likely to support Criminal Justice System for example in reporting crime and act as a witness. Also in recent terrorist investigations including 7/7 London bombing and 21/7 and the conviction of Steve Wright for Ipswich murder that CCTV has played a important role in detecting crime and protecting the public . The new crime threat will be cybercrime if things go as they are. This would be any crime that involves an information system and includes ID theft. As technology advances people are going to be more brazen to commit cybercrimes from home Transnational crime organisation will continue to grow in diversity in many regions in the world. Developed countries like England and America will bore affected by TCSs than in the past. Gilman, A, Là ©vy R (2005) Crime and culture: an historical perspective Publisher Ashgate Publishing Freilich D, Guerette(2006) Migration, culture conflict, crime and terrorism Ashgate Publishing, Ltd Valier ,C (2004) Crime and punishment in contemporary culture Routledge London Rodney D. Coates (2004) Race and ethnicity: across time, space, and discipline Publisher BRILL Newburn T (2003) Crime and Criminal Justice Policy London Pearson Education Roberts A. R. (2003) Critical Issues in Crime and Justice London Sage Frank E. H. (2009) Introduction to Criminology: Theories, Methods, and Criminal Behavior London Sage publisher Calvin J. L, Gerald R. G (1996) Crime, justice, and society Publisher Rowman Altamira Barak .G (2000) Crime and crime control: a global view Publisher Greenwood Publishing Group Young, M (2009) White Collar Crime Greenhaven Press Coleman .J.W (2002) The criminal elite: understanding white-collar crime Worth Publishers Author Larry J. Siegel (2008) Criminology Publisher Cengage Learning

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Transmission of Pain Signals by the Brain at the Spinal Level Essay

Transmission of Pain Signals by the Brain at the Spinal Level Pain has been defined by Coates & Hindle as an unpleasant emotional and sensory experience which signals a potential or actual damage to tissues (2011, p. 213). Pain is a common human experience and can emanate from injury and illness. There are two main types of pain; acute pain is short-lived, lasting for minutes or several days and its onset often takes place rapidly. It results from the activation of pain nerve endings or nociceptors either by internal or external pain stimuli. On the other hand chronic pain is continuous and sometimes recurrent and can last for weeks, months or even years. Chronic pain is usually not located at or related to the tissue undergoing trauma (Draper & Knight, 2007, p. 104). Various theories have been proposed to explain the mechanism underlying the transmission and perception of pain. These include the specificity theory which maintains that specific fibers and pain receptors are activated by injury after which the pain signals are projected via the spinal pathway to an area in the brain that interprets the pain. In this regard, the specificity theory virtually equates the peripheral injury with the psychological experience caused by the pain (Anderson, 2004, p. 355). However, this theory has been found to harbor several limitations as research about pain has intensified with time. In light of this, the gate theory that was proposed by Melzack and Wall has had a major contribution to the understanding of pain transmission and perception (Pain Game Part 2, 2011). Research has demonstrated that pain is affected by psychological and physiological factors which helps to explain the mechanism underlying inhibition and/or facilitaion of pai... ...t has been noted that the gate control theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 formed the foundation of understanding the process of pain signal transmission. The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is the region of the CNS that controls the passage of pain signals by means of opening and/or closing the gate. Pain can only be perceived if reaches the brain. Events that cause excitation such pain signals and the release of excitatory or facilitatory chemicals cause the gate to open whereas inhibitory events such as competing nerve impulses caused by rubbing trigger closure of the gate. The gate can also be closed due to descending inhibition enhanced by relaxation or the use of pain-relieving medication such as morphine. The brain stem is responsible for controlling the transmission of pain signals via the ascending and descending pain pathways.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Christmas Carol Essay

   But overall when it comes to the characters in the story, it would have been for the older audience, mainly because, many of the characters aren’t suitable for children, fortunatley the media and industry have transformed the original characters into the more child friendly characters which can be seen in the modern films of a Christmas carol. The gothic genre of stories was favored in the Victorian era so Dickens tried to add some of his gothic conventions to his novella. At the time, children and adults loved the gothic genre so the novella was then most likely to be suitable for all ages. Dickens places in a Christmas carol some of the basic conventions of a gothic story such as the several ghosts and the mystery and suspense in the atmosphere with the ghost of Christmas future. He also sets the first chapter of Marley’s ghost in his old, dark and gloomy home, the atmosphere becomes mysterious at the time with the constant sound heard and supernatural event, like When Marley appears in his room. There are also many more of these gothic conventions used like the mysterious weather, the rain makes creates a more gothic atmosphere, also with the ghost of Christmas future and a very important convention used in many gothic movies and books, justice-it is present in the novella, like how Scrooge’s actions means that if any positive change is not present in him he could suffer from a hellish afterlife and how tiny Tim would die without his help. And I think that the final convention of the gothic which is present in the story is the idea of Scrooge’ heroine in distress, this creates even more tension into the story. In the novella, many different themes are used , for example, coldness and darkness in the first chapter, then once the ghost of Christmas past arrives and takes scrooge to places like Fizziwigg’s home, a theme of happiness is placed to calm the audience and allow their minds to escape from total darkness and to lighten up the story, this method is also commonly used in many gothic stories, basically something scary happens and the audience experience a very intense atmosphere, this intensity is then relieved from the audience by the next scene being a bit brighter or happier. After the Fizziwigg party, the atmosphere becomes saddened and brings the audience back the gloom of the story. And after that the main themes involved in the upcoming chapters happiness with the kind hearted ghost of Christmas present, misery and happiness with Scrooge’s life before and after him changing into a business obsessed old man, life and death with Tiny Tim, darkness with the ghost of Christmas future and not to mention redemption with involving Scrooge and the Ghosts, and finishes the story off with a happy ending with the much kinder Ebenezer Scrooge. The happy theme at the end of the novella also makes the story more suitable for children as most children stories include happy endings. A Christmas Carol has changed its audience since the story was published, it was initially written for the rich, and to be specific adults, but over time it has been slowly transformed into something many children will be interested in watching, a family classic which is usually enjoyed many Christmas’. During this time, the characters have been changed to suit the audience and to allow them to appeal to a children as well as adults, for example, the ghosts have become less gothic, like the ghost of Christmas future and other characters in comparison to the first book or film. My opinion about the audience for a Christmas carol is that it was initially targeted at families; I think this mainly because children would love to have a gothic twist to their Christmas classic and not completely a children’s movie so the adults can enjoy it too. To conclude to my essay I personally think that the book was initially written to be suitable for all ages, it is more of a family story, especially considering at the time that all age groups loved gothic stories, both children and adults, making it enjoyable for them both. But at the same time some scenes of the novella may be unsuitable for younger children, especially the scene involving the ghost of Christmas past. Choose either one of the last two.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Measures of Disease Frequency

Measures of Disease Frequency According to Aschengrau and Seage (2008), measures of disease frequency are the â€Å"building blocks† employed by epidemiologists to evaluate effects of a disease on humans (2008, p.59).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Measures of Disease Frequency specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When measures of disease frequency are compared, they consolidate building blocks in a constructive manner and permits one to define the correlation between characteristics and a disorder. It is possible to compare disease frequencies between diverse populations. For instance, an epidemiologist may aspire to compare disease frequencies between inhabitants of the United States and Haiti in terms of demographic attributes such as gender, age, race and socio-economic aspects. Other demographic attributes that can be compared are personal habits (i.e. cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption) and environmental aspects (i.e. water and ai r pollution). What’s more, an epidemiologist may opt to compare prevalence rates of coronary heart ailment between inhabitants of the US and Haiti or amongst smokers and nonsmokers, whites and blacks, men and women, and in areas prevalent with low and high pollution levels (Aschengrau Seage, 2008, p.60). There are several reasons to explain why the crude birth rate in Haiti is lower than in the United States. First of all, the United States is more populated than Haiti. Secondly, the population proportion of elderly persons in the US is higher than in Haiti. Therefore, the higher proportion of elderly persons in the US explains why the country has a higher crude mortality rate than Haiti.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the per capita income in the US is significantly higher than in Haiti. Consequently, many US citizens spent their earnings on pro miscuous lifestyle activities such as smoking, alcohol drinking and drug abuse which increase disease frequency (Xu et al., 2009, p.5). Improvements in diagnostic criteria can significantly reduce the prevalence of an existing health condition. The critical rationale for diagnostic criteria is that it facilitates the establishment of the threshold for diagnosis of an ailment in those circumstances where the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves. However, there are several diagnoses where the symptom criteria demand the existence of impairment with respect to level of functioning that are plainly deemed as clinically significant. Numerous DSM categories exist for which the symptom criteria infer substantial suffering. One might assume that in such incidences, the clinical significance criterion is irrelevant since the distress condition has been fulfilled. Nonetheless, this is not the case since the requirement for diagnostic criterion (that the ailment be clinically considerab le) may raise the threshold for diagnosis thereby disregarding some false positive (Spitzer Wakefield, 1999, p. 1860). There is no doubt that a shorter duration of a health condition reduces the prevalence of a health condition. For instance, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is used to compare the significance of health interventions among diverse health outcomes among various ages.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Measures of Disease Frequency specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, when DALY increases (as a result of health intervention), the prevalence of a health condition reduces. Similarly, a decrease in the incidence of a disease reduces the prevalence of a health condition since diagnostic and preventive measures are already in place to deter the recurrence of the health condition (Musgrove Fox-Rushby, 2008, p.2). Finally, the loss of healthy people from the population for other reasons neither incre ases nor decreases the prevalent of a health condition since their deaths are not caused by the existing health condition. References Aschengrau, A., Seage, GR. (2008). Essentials of Epidemiology in Public Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Musgrove, P Fox-Rushby, J. (2008). Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Priority Settings. New York: Oxford University Press. Spritzer, R. Wakefield, J. (1999). DSM-IV Diagnostic Criterion for Clinical Significance: Does it Help Solve the False Positive Problem? Am J Psychiatry, 156, 1856-1864. Xu, J., Kochanek, KD. Tejada-Vera, B. (2009). Preliminary Data for 2007. National Vital Statistics Reports, 58(1), 1-51.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Summary of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe †Literature Essay

Summary of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe – Literature Essay Free Online Research Papers Summary of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe Literature Essay â€Å"Robinson Crusoe is certainly the first novel in the sense that it is the first fictional narrative in which the ordinary person’s activities are the centre of continuous literary attention.† Before that, in the early eighteenth century, authors like Pope, Swift, Addison and Steele looked back to the Rome of Caesar Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD) as a golden age. That period is called the Augustan age. Literature was very different since it focused on mythology and epic heroes. However, to what extent can Robinson Crusoe be called the â€Å"first novel† and how is it different from all that have been done so far? Besides, what are the evolutions in the novel genre leading to Victorian novels, like Pride and Prejudice published almost one hundred years later (1813) in terms of style, themes and concerns? Augustan writers, before Daniel Defoe, were very protective of the status quo and their novels were philosophical and religious, based on a myth of the eternal fitness of things. By contrast, Defoe stood for revolutionary change, economic individualism, social mobility, trade, and freedom of consciousness. For Swift, Defoe was â€Å"the fellow that was pilloried, I have forgotten his name.† He represented at once a social literary and intellectual challenge to the Augustan world, and the Augustans reacted to him accordingly. In Robinson Crusoe, Defoe deals with major points of Western civilisation like trade, mercantile capitalism since at that time, a great attempt was made to dominate other continents, spread culture, beliefs, like for example, when Robinson tries to convert Friday into Christianity, as he considers him a savage. In the eighteenth century, British economically depended on slave trade, which was abolished on the early 1800s. Therefore, Daniel Defoe was familiar with this practise, even though he did not actively criticise it. There is consequently no surprise that, Robinson treats Friday as his slave. However, Crusoe is able to recognise Friday’s humanity, though he does not see his slavery as a contradiction. Robinson Crusoe was written in a context of a European colonialism well established around the globe. Next, material wealth is a sign of prestige and power in Robinson’s mind. For instance, he often lists his belongings, like the amount of land ploughed, his provisions, and he stores the coins found on various wrecks. On top of that, he calls his â€Å"base,† his â€Å"castle† and eventually considers himself as a â€Å"King.† Therefore, material power is an important element as well as religion and faith in the novel. Robinson rejects his father’s advice and religious teachings at the beginning of the novel, in order to travel and have some adventure and wealth. Although, his shipwreck can be considered as a moral punishment and his disobedience as a sin, the protagonist did accumulate wealth and did survive at the end of the novel. Thus, the fact that he was punished can be argued and discussed. Robinson’s opinion about religion is very clear. He is a puritan and tries to spread his convictions on the island to convert into Christianity Friday, who is very rational. The hero simply refuses Friday’s own beliefs, thinking that his religion is the best one. This thought may be due to the fact that British people believed that they had a right and a duty to transmit their knowledge, culture and religion. By contrast, Pride and Prejudice was written a century later, and therefore, the worries were no longer the same. In Jane Austen’s novel, there is a complete shift to everyday life and society’s concerns. The writer reveals the ethical basis of everyday life, and shows how â€Å"the ordinary occurrences of the world, no less than great actions, were centred on moral conventions, moral judgement and moral choice† so that, living in such a society required a constant will and intellect to control the self and understand others. Differently from Daniel Defoe, her main concern is her emotional centre, not Robinson’s economic adventure. The shifts of interests are mainly caused by a change in society and a transformation in people’s minds. In Austen’s times, the most important thing is not the individual in itself but far more, the individual living in a society strongly hierarchical, and based on a strong and deeply rooted system of class. That difference can be pointed by the two openings of Pride and Prejudice on the one hand, and Robinson Crusoe on the other hand. â€Å"It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. However little known the feelings or views of such a man may be on his first entering a neighbourhood, this truth is so well fixed in the minds of the surrounding families, that he is considered as the rightful property of some one or other of their daughters. [†¦]† â€Å"I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen who settled first at Hull. [†¦]† The choice of words clearly shows that the two books are about to tackle different perspectives: the individual in Robinson Crusoe and the relation of the individual and the society in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. To carry on with Pride and Prejudice, marriage and money were two recurrent themes in Victorian people’s minds, as shown with Mrs Bennet, who in the very first chapter claims, â€Å"the business of her life was to get her daughters married.† In Austen’s plot, the Bennet daughters are in real danger if they do not marry and find a house since the obsequious Mr Collins will inherit the house after Mr Bennet’s death. Therefore, marriage is the only exit for the Bennet daughters. Money is seen as a potential progress in the Victorian society, likewise in Robinson Crusoe where trade may be perceived as a benefit for a society in expansion. Nonetheless, we have just seen that both novels deal with the question of individual. Robinson Crusoe is clearly based on the individual and his accomplishment. The protagonist is stranded on an island, and has to survive and live decently entirely on his own resources. This stress on individual is in keeping with humanism, an important feature in the early eighteenth century. â€Å"There exists an immutable human essence, usually known as ‘human nature’ which is historically invariable, and our understanding of it embodied in Western literature.† Human nature is held to process great potential for dignity and mobility. In Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, just a few characters really appear in the plot. We can quote Robinson Crusoe, Friday, the English captain, the Portuguese Captain who rescued Crusoe when he escaped from Sallee, the Widow†¦ There are obviously less characters than in Pride and Prejudice. Defoe also highlights individuals’ emotions su ch as fear, anger, despair, hope and relief. However, Robinson only values Friday as a devotedly and reliable servant, and does not consider him a friend. There is no room for love, since there are no female characters involved in the plot. We are portrayed a masculine world where women have nothing to do in it. On the contrary, Austen was interested in individual’s problems and especially in women’s concerns illustrated by interactions with others and mainly through the two protagonists: Elizabeth Bennet and Darcy Fitzwilliam. As the title of the novel suggests, the intrigue is structured around both concepts of â€Å"pride† and â€Å"prejudice.† Elizabeth has to overcome her prejudice against Darcy to really appreciate his own personality and clearly see through him, beyond appearances and others’ opinions like her mother’s. On the other hand, Darcy has to forget Elizabeth’s social rank and the fact that she has no â€Å"connection † in order to really value her. In that way, these two characters are like â€Å"round† characters since they evolve and progress learning by their defects and by recognising they were wrong. Besides, Jane Austen does not hesitate to criticise the society and the system of class in which she lives, mocking at Mr Collins and his way he addresses people. He uses a very convoluted speech, completely inappropriate to the situation, like for example his proposal to Elisabeth: â€Å"My reasons for marrying are, first, that I think it a right thing for every clergyman in easy circumstances (like myself) to se the example of matrimony in his parish. Secondly, that I am convinced it will add very greatly to my happiness; and thirdly – which perhaps I ought to have mentioned earlier, that it is the particular advice and recommendation of the very noble lady whom I have the honour of calling patroness. [†¦]† In that proposal, Mr Collins has no feeling at all towards Elisabeth, and his speech is much more calculated we could expect. It is like a mathematical demonstration stressed by the style because, as Jane Austen says in chapter 15, â€Å"Mr Collins was not a sensible man, and the deficiency of nature had been but little assisted by education or society.† Thus, style is crucial in a novel to picture characters’ behaviours. Nonetheless, both books’ writing is radically different. First, regarding the narrator point of view, Robinson Crusoe is written in the first person singular. As a consequence, we constantly have Robinson’s point of view and opinion about the events happening. We have to wonder whether the protagonist, through which the story is described, may be reliable or not, and if we can trust him. If we had Friday’s point of view instead, it is clear that we would have a complete different opinion about Robinson. By contrast, in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, an omniscient narrator knowing absolutely everything tells the story. Consequently, the writer can arouse some dramatic irony creating gaps between what the reader knows and what the characters know, like for example, the fact that we know that Darcy loves secretly Elisabeth, whereas the heroin does not know that. Jane Austen contro ls the plot and sometimes intervenes to question the reader, and criticise some controversial points. The best example is the first sentence opening the novel which remains famous: â€Å"it is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.† (p.1) She clearly criticises the way that society works sparkling off some irony in that sentence, because society works the other way round. Nevertheless, in a single sentence, she already tackles with issues like money and marriage. Secondly, the third person narrative voice enables Jane Austen to put into practise her showing-telling technique. She describes the characters (telling) by, simply letting them speak, their personality being rendered by their way of speaking (showing). The most relevant example is Mrs Bennet’s behaviour. She is described as a complete â€Å"foolish† person, gossiping and only interested in marrying her daughters. For instance on the first page, Mr Bennet has a talk with his wife: My dear Mr. Bennet, said his lady to him one day, have you heard that Netherfield Park is let at last? Mr. Bennet replied that he had not. But it is, returned she; for Mrs. Long has just been here, and she told me all about it. Mr. Bennet made no answer. Do not you want to know who has taken it? cried his wife impatiently. You want to tell me, and I have no objection to hearing it. This was invitation enough. Why, my dear, you must know, Mrs. Long says that Netherfield is taken by a young man of large fortune from the north of England; that he came down on Monday in a chaise and four to see the place, and was so much delighted with it that he agreed with Mr. Morris immediately; that he is to take possession before Michaelmas, and some of his servants are to be in the house by the end of next week. Moreover, â€Å"for rapid effects and subtle shifts of emphasis, Austen’s language half assumes the mode of thought and expression of her characters, so that their consciousness are seen, filtered through the central authorial intelligence, and more can be understood from the authorial tone-of-voice than from straight forward report.† Furthermore, using the third person voice, Jane Austen keeps us much in the dark about Darcy’s character so that during our first reading, we are also misled by his behaviour, as Elizabeth is herself, pushing us to believe that he is very proud and haughty. Austen does that by â€Å"screening most of our impressions through Elizabeth in order to bring off the chief dramatic effect of the story,† overwhelming surprise at his first proposal. Last but not least, there was a clear-cut evolution between the two novels in the construction of the plot itself. Pride and Prejudice’s story is far more complicated, since the events are intermingled and are caused by others or are the consequences leading to other upheavals. Nevertheless, at the end, everything is solved, and every plot has an answer: Elizabeth marrying Darcy, Lydia marrying Mr Bingley, and Charlotte Lucas living with Mr Collins without loving him. Contrasting this causality, we can say that Robinson Crusoe looks like an epistolary story. During a couple of pages, Robinson even carries on telling his adventures through a diary, in the chapter â€Å"The Journal.† That technique could have been influenced by the fact that Daniel Defoe was also a journalist. Concisely, Defoe’s plot is simpler with only one main plot arousing the reader’s imagination more than possible burning issues. To conclude, Robinson Crusoe is a novel in itself, since it includes all the characteristics: characters, plot, and narrative voice. However, the concerns and the themes in 1719 were not the same as in 1813 because Daniel Defoe and Jane Austen did not live in the same world and society at all. On the other hand, Austen perfected the techniques of dramatic-presentation, socially analysed language, which were necessary to tackle the dilemma of individual moral choice and the relation between individuals and society in the bourgeois world. Later, in 1871, George Eliot’s Middlemarch appeared. This novel concerns issues of rank, reputation and marriage and it observes in a realistic way the characters, and the entire community from nobility to tradesmen. Realism was a key concept, very important since Austen’s times, and this was a deed which will go down in literature’s history. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Corpus Austen, J. Pride and Prejudice. 1813. London: Heron Books, 1968. Defoe, D. Robinson Crusoe. 1719. London: Penguin Popular Classics, 1994. 2. Secondary Texts Babb, H.S. Jane Austen’s Novels: The Fabric of Dialogue. London: Archon Books, 1967. Skilton, D. The English novel: Defoe to the Victorians. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1977. 3. Further Reading David, D. ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Victorian Novel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Loveridge, M. A history of Augustan fable. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Secord, A.W. Studies in the Narrative Method of Defoe. New York: Russell and Russell, 1963: 9-108. Sherbo, A. Studies in the Eighteenth Century English Novel. Michigan: Michigan State UP, 1969: ch.10. Skinner, J. An Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Fiction. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001. 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