Saturday, August 31, 2019

3-D Password for More Security

ADVANCED E-SECURITY CP5603 MINOR RESEARCH REPORT Submitted By: Neeraj Kumar MIT-MBA Student ID. : 12682310 TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page no ABSTRACT 3 INTRODUCTION 2-6 1. 1 Authentication 5 1. Authentication Methods 5-6 1. 3 Organization of the Report 6 ACTUAL RESEARCH WORK 7-8 3D PASSWORD SYSTEM 2. 1 Overview 7 2. 2 Innovative Component 7-8 2. Comparison with Current Authentication Systems 8 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 3D PASSWORD 9-16 3. 1 Virtual Object Recognition 9 3. 2 3D Password Selection and Inputs 10-13 3. 3 3D Virtual Environment Design Guidelines 14-16 APPLICATIONS 17-18 4. Advantages 18 CONCLUSION 19 REFERENCES 20 ABSTRACT Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used; however, users do not follow their requirements. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries, which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks.Many available graphical passwords have a password sp ace that is less than or equal to the textual password space. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen. Many biometric authentications have been proposed; however, users tend to resist using biometrics because of their intrusiveness and the effect on their privacy. Moreover, biometrics cannot be revoked. In this report mechanism of secure authentication is dicussed. The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we present a 3-D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects.The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3-D environment constructs the user’s 3-D password. The 3-D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3-D virtual environment. The design of the 3-D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3-D password key space. INTRODUCTION In this chapter the pass word stereotypes such as textual passwords, biometric scanning, tokens or cards (such as an ATM) etc.Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used; however, users do not follow their requirements. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionary or their pet names, girlfriends etc. Ten years back Klein performed such tests and he could crack 10-15 passwords per day. On the other hand, if a password is hard to guess, then it is often hard to remember. Users have difficulty remembering a password that is long and random appearing. So, they create short, simple, and insecure passwords that are susceptible to attack.Which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Graphical passwords schemes have been proposed. The strength of graphical passwords comes from the fact that users can recall and recognize pictures more than words. Most graphical passwords are vulnerable for shoulder surfing attacks, where an attacker can observe or record the legitimate user’s graphical password by camera. Token based systems such as ATMs are widely applied in banking systems and in laboratories entrances as a mean of authentication. However, Smart cards or tokens are vulnerable to loss or theft.Moreover, the user has to carry the token whenever access required. Biometric scanning is your â€Å"natural† signature and Cards or Tokens prove your validity. But some people hate the fact to carry around their cards, some refuse to undergo strong IR exposure to their retinas (Biometric scanning). In this seminar, present and evaluate our contribution, i. e. , the 3-D password. The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we present a 3-D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects.The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3-D environment constructs the user’s 3-D password. The 3-D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3-D virtual environment. The design of the 3-D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3-Dpassword key space. 1. 1 AUTHENTICATION Authentication is the act of establishing or confirming something as authentic, that is, that claims made by or about the subject are true.This might involve confirming the identity of a person, tracing the origins of an artifact, ensuring that a product is what it’s packaging and labeling claims to be, or assuring that a computer program is a trusted one. For example, when you show proper identification credentials to a bank teller, you are asking to be authenticated to act on behalf of the account holder. If your authentication request is approved, you become authorized to access the accounts of that account holder, but no others. 1. 2 AUTHENTICATION METHODS The first i s comparing the attributes of the object itself to what is known about objects of that origin.For example, an art expert might look for similarities in the style of painting, check the location and form of a signature, or compare the object to an old photograph. An archaeologist might use carbon dating to verify the age of an artifact, do a chemical analysis of the materials used, or compare the style of construction or decoration to other artifacts of similar origin. The physics of sound and light, and comparison with a known physical environment, can be used to examine the authenticity of audio recordings, photographs, or videos. The second type relies on documentation or other external affirmations.For example, the rules of evidence in criminal courts often require establishing the chain of custody of evidence presented. This can be accomplished through a written evidence log, or by testimony from the police detectives and forensics staff that handled it. Some antiques are accomp anied by certificates attesting to their authenticity. External records have their own problems of forgery and perjury, and are also vulnerable to being separated from the artifact and lost. Currency and other financial instruments commonly use the first type of authentication method.Bills, coins, and cheques incorporate hard-to-duplicate physical features, such as fine printing or engraving, distinctive feel, watermarks, and holographic imagery, which are easy for receivers to verify. Consumer goods such as pharmaceuticals, perfume, fashion clothing can use either type of authentication method to prevent counterfeit goods from taking advantage of a popular brand's reputation (damaging the brand owner's sales and reputation). A trademark is a legally protected marking or other identifying feature which aids consumers in the identification of genuine brand-name goods. 1. ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we presen t a 3-D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3-D environment constructs the user’s 3-D password. The 3-D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3-D virtual environment. The design of the 3-D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3-Dpassword key space.ACTUAL RESEARCH WORK 3D PASSWORD SYSTEM 2. 1 OVERVIEW In this chapter the system consist of multi factor authentication scheme. It can combine all existing authentication schemes into a single 3Dvirtual environment. This 3D virtual environment contains several objects or items with which the user can interact. The user is presented with this 3D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects i nside the 3D environment constructs the user’s 3Dpassword.The 3D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3D virtual environment. The choice of what authentication schemes will be part of the user's 3D password reflects the user's preferences and requirements. A user who prefers to remember and recall a password might choose textual and graphical password as part of their 3D password. On the other hand users who have more difficulty with memory or recall might prefer to choose smart cards or biometrics as part of their 3D password.Moreover user who prefers to keep any kind of biometric data private might not interact with object that requires biometric information. Therefore it is the user's choice and decision to construct the desired and preferred 3D password. 2. 2 INNOVATIVE COMPONENT The proposed system is a multi-factor authentication scheme that combines the benefits of various authentication schemes. Users have the freedom to select whether the 3D password will be solely recall, recognition, or token based, or combination of two schemes or more. This freedom of selection is necessary because users are different and they have different requirements.Therefore, to ensure high user acceptability, the user’s freedom of selection is important. The following requirements are satisfied in the proposed scheme 1. The new scheme provide secrets that are easy to remember and very difficult for intruders to guess. 2. The new scheme provides secrets that are not easy to write down on paper. Moreover, the scheme secrets should be difficult to share with others. 3. The new scheme provides secrets that can be easily revoked or changed. 2. 3 COMPARISON WITH CURRENT AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS Suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used.Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries, which make textual passwords easy to break and v ulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Many available graphical passwords have a password space that is less than or equal to the textual password space. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen. Many biometric authentications have been proposed. However, users tend to resist using biometrics because of their intrusiveness and the effect on their privacy. Moreover, biometrics cannot be revoked. The 3D password is a multi-factor authentication scheme.The design of the 3D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3D password key space. User have freedom to select whether the 3D password will be solely recall, recognition, or token based, or combination of two schemes or more. IMPLEMENTATION 3. 1 VIRTUAL OBJECT RECOGNITION Virtual objects can be any object that we encounter in real life. Any obvious actions and interactions toward the real life objects can be done in the virtual3Denvironment toward the virtual objects. Moreover, any user input (such as spea king in a specific location) in the virtual 3Denvironment can be considered as a part of the 3Dpassword.We can have the following objects: 1) A computer with which the user can type; 2) A fingerprint reader that requires the user’s fingerprint; 3) A biometric recognition device; 4) A paper or a white board that a user can write, sign, or draw on; 5) An automated teller machine (ATM) that requests a token; 6) A light that can be switched on/off; 7) A television or radio where channels can be selected; 8) A staple that can be punched; 9) A car that can be driven; 10) A book that can be moved from one place to another; 11) Any graphical password scheme; 12) Any real life object; 3) Any upcoming authentication scheme. The action toward an object (assume a fingerprint recognition device)that exists in location (x1 , y1 , z1 ) is different from the actions toward a similar object (another fingerprint recognition device) that exists in location (x2 , y2 , z2 ),where x1 = x2 , y1 = y 2 , and z1 = z2 . Therefore, to perform the legitimate 3Dpassword, the user must follow the same scenario performed by the legitimate user. This means interacting with the same objects that reside at the exact locations and perform the exact actions in the proper sequence. 3. 2 3D PASSWORD SELECTION AND INPUTSLet us consider a 3Dvirtual environment space of size G ? G ? G. The 3Denvironment space is represented by the coordinates (x, y, z) ? [1†¦ G]? [1†¦ G]? [1†¦ G]. The objects are distributed in the 3Dvirtual environment with unique (x, y, z) coordinates. We assume that the user can navigate into the 3Dvirtual environment and interact with the objects using any input device such as a mouse, key board, fingerprint scanner, iris scanner, stylus, card reader, and microphone. Consider the sequence of those actions and interactions using the previous input devices as the user’s 3Dpassword.For example, consider a user who navigates through the 3Dvirtualenvironment that consists of an office and a meeting room. Let us assume that the user is in the virtual office and the user turns around to the door located in (10, 24, 91) and opens it. Then, the user closes the door. The user then finds a computer to the left, which exists in the position (4, 34, 18), and the user types â€Å"FALCON. † Then, the user walks to the meeting room and picks up a pen located at (10, 24, 80) and draws only one dot in a paper located in (1, 18, 30), which is the dot (x, y) coordinate relative to the paper space is (330, 130).The user then presses the login button. The initial representation of user actions in the 3Dvirtual environment can be recorded as follows: †¢ (10, 24, 91) Action = Open the office door; †¢ (10, 24, 91) Action = Close the office door; †¢ (4, 34, 18) Action = Typing, â€Å"F†; †¢ (4, 34, 18) Action = Typing, â€Å"A†; †¢ (4, 34, 18) Action = Typing, â€Å"L†; †¢ (4, 34, 18) Action = Typin g, â€Å"C†; †¢ (4, 34, 18) Action = Typing, â€Å"O†; †¢ (4, 34, 18) Action = Typing, â€Å"N†; †¢ (10, 24, 80) Action = Pick up the pen; †¢ (1, 18, 80) Action = Drawing, point = (330, 130). Figure 3. 2 – Snapshot of an experimental 3-D virtual environmentThe 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. It can combine all existing authentication schemes into a single 3-D virtual environment. This 3-D virtual environment contains several objects or items with which the user can interact. The type of interaction varies from one item to another. The 3-D password is constructed by observing the actions and interactions of the user and by observing the sequences of such actions. It is the user’s choice to select which type of authentication techniques will be part of their 3-D password. This is chieved through interacting only with the objects that acquire information that the user is comfortable in providing and ignoring th e objects that request information that the user prefers not to provide. For example, if an item requests an iris scan and the user is not comfortable in providing such information, the user simply avoids interacting with that item. Moreover, giving the user the freedom of choice as to what type of authentication schemes will be part of their 3-D password and given the large number of objects and items in the environment, the number of possible 3-D passwords will increase.Thus, it becomes much more difficult for the attacker to guess the user’s 3-D password. Fig 3. 2. 1 State diagram of 3D password 3. 3 3D VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT DESIGN GUIDELINES The design of the 3 D virtual environments affects the usability, effectiveness, acceptability of 3D password. The first step in building a 3 ­Dpassword system is to design a 3 ­Denvironment that reflects the administration needs and the security requirements. Figure 3. 3 3D virtual environment 1) Real life-similarity ­The prospec tive 3 ¬D virtual environment should reflect what people are used to seeing in real life. Objects used in virtual environments should be relatively similar in size to real objects (sized to scale). Possible actions and interactions toward virtual objects should reflect real life situations. Object responses should be realistic. The target should have a 3 ­D virtual environment that users can interact. 2) Object uniqueness and distinction ­ Every virtual object or item in the 3 ­D virtual environment is different from any other virtual object.The uniqueness comes from the fact that every virtual object has its own attributes such as position. Thus, the prospective interaction with object 1 is not equal to the interaction with object 2. However, having similar objects such as 20 computers in one place might confuse the user. Therefore, the design of the 3 ­D virtual environment should consider that every object should be distinguishable from other objects. Similarly, in desi gning a 3 ­Dvirtual environment, it should be easy for users to navigate through and to distinguish between objects.The distinguishing factor increases the user’s recognition of objects. Therefore, it improves the system usability. 3) Three Dimensional Virtual Environment Size  ­ A 3 ­Dvirtual environment can depict a city or even the world. On the other hand, it can depict a space as focused as a single room or office. A large 3 ¬D virtual environment will increase the time required by the user to perform a 3 ­Dpassword. Moreover, a large3 ­Dvirtual environment can contain a large number of virtual objects. Therefore, the probable 3 ­Dpassword space broadens.However, a small 3 ­D virtual environment usually contains only a few objects, and thus, performing a 3 ­D password will take less time. 4) Number of objects and their types ­ Part of designing a 3 ­D virtual environment is determining the types of objects and how many objects should be placed in th e environment. The types of objects reflect what kind of responses the object will have. For simplicity, we can consider requesting a textual password or a fingerprint as an object response type. Selecting the right object response types and the number of objects affects the probable password space of a 3 ­D password. ) System Importance ­ The 3D virtual environment should consider what systems will be protected by a 3D password. The number of objects and the types of objects that have been used in the 3D virtual environment should reflect the importance of the protected system. APPLICATIONS The 3D password can have a password space that is very large compared to other authentication schemes, so the 3 ­D password’s main application domains are protecting critical systems and resources. 1. Critical servers ­Many large organizations have critical servers that are usually protected by a textual password. A 3-D password authentication proposes a sound replacement for a te xtual password. Moreover, entrances to such locations are usually protected by access cards and sometimes PIN numbers. Therefore, a 3-D password can be used to protect the entrance to such locations and protect the usage of such servers. 2. Nuclear and military facilities- Such facilities should be protected by the most powerful authentication systems.The 3 ­D password has a very large probable password space, and since it can contain token ­, biometrics ­, recognition ­, and knowledge based authentications in a single authentication system, it is a sound choice for high level security locations. 3. Airplanes and jet fighters ­ Because of the possible threat of misusing airplanes and jet fighters for religious, political agendas, usage of such airplanes should be protected by a powerful authentication system. In addition, 3 ­D passwords can be used in less critical systems because the 3D virtual environment can be designed to fit to any system needs.A small virtual envir onment can be used in the following systems like Some other application areas: †¢ ATM †¢ Desktop Computers ; laptop logins †¢ Web Authentication 4. 1 ADVANTAGES * Easy to memorize: Users can memorize a 3D password as a â€Å"little† story which makes the password easy to remember * Flexibility: 3d passwords allows multi-factor authentication. Smart cards, biometrics and alpha num. password can embedded in the 3d password technology * Strength: A scenario in a 3D environment offers as almost unlimited combination of possibilities.As such system can have specific 3d world, hack are extremely difficult. * The 3D password gives users the freedom of selecting what type of authentication techniques. * Secrets those are not easy to write down on paper. * The scheme secrets should be difficult to share with others. * Provide secrets that can be easily revoked or changed. CONCLUSION There are many authentication schemes in the current state. Some of them are based on us er’s physical and behavioral properties, and some other authentication schemes are based on user’s knowledge such as textual and graphical passwords.Moreover, there are some other important authentication schemes that are based on what you have, such as smart cards. Among the various authentication schemes, textual password and token-based schemes, or the combination of both, are commonly applied. However, as mentioned before, both authentication schemes are vulnerable to certain attacks. Moreover, there are many authentication schemes that are currently under study and they may require additional time and effort to be applicable for commercial use.In this report the 3D password mechanism is explained the 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme that combines these various authentication schemes into a single3-D virtual environment. The virtual environment can contain any existing authentication scheme or even any upcoming authentication schemes by adding it as a response to actions performed on an object. Therefore, the resulted password space becomes very large compared to any existing authentication schemes. REFERENCES [1] X. Suo, Y. Zhu, and G. S. Owen, â€Å"Graphical passwords: A survey,† in Proc. 1st Annual . Comput. Security Appl. Conf. , Dec. 5–9, 2005, pp. 463–472. [2] D. V. Klein, â€Å"Foiling the cracker: A survey of, and improvement to passwords security, in Proc. USENIX Security Workshop, 2008, Measurement,VOL. 57,September 2008. [3] NBC news, ATM Fraud: Banking on Your Money, Dateline Hidden Cameras Show Criminals Owning ATMs, Dec. 11, 2003. [4] T. Kitten, Keeping an Eye on the ATM. (2005, Jul. 11). ATMMarketPlace. com. [6] G. E. Blonder, â€Å"Graphical password,† U. S. Patent 5 559 961,Sep. 24, 1996. [7] http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/3-D_Secure

Friday, August 30, 2019

Crime and Senator Joseph Estrada

The most discussed law these days is Republic Act 7080 otherwise known as the law on plunder. Seen as a deterrent to prevent public officials from stealing money from the government, the plunder law was passed in 1991 with the most significant signatory being one Senator Joseph Estrada. In this edition of the Law Professor, we shall now examine the intricacies of the Plunder Law. What is plunder and how is it committed?According to Section 2 of RA 7080, plunder is committed when a public officer who, by himself or in connivance with members of his family, relatives by affinity or consanguinity, business associates, subordinates or other persons, amasses, accumulates or acquires ill-gotten wealth through a combination or series of overt or criminal acts as described in Section 1 (d) of RA 7080 in the aggregate amount or total value of at least Fifty million pesos (P50,000,000. 00).In addition, any person who participated with the said public officer in the commission of plunder shall likewise be punished. The criminal acts described in Section 1 (d) are as follows: 1. Through misappropriation, conversion, misuse, or malversation of public funds or raids on the public treasury; 2. By receiving, directly or indirectly, any commission, gift, share, percentage, kickbacks or any/or entity in connection with any government contract or project or by reason of the office or position of the public officer concerned; 3.By the illegal or fraudulent conveyance or disposition of assets belonging to the National government or any of its subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities or government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries; 4. By obtaining, receiving or accepting directly or indirectly any shares of stock, equity or any other form of interest or participation including the promise of future employment in any business enterprise or undertaking; 5.By establishing agricultural, industrial or commercial monopolies or other combinations and/or implementat ion of decrees and orders intended to benefit particular persons or special interests; or, 6. By taking undue advantage of official position, authority, relationship, connection or influence to unjustly enrich himself or themselves at the expense and to the damage and prejudice of the Filipino people and the Republic of the Philippines. In the original version of RA 7080, the offender was liable only if the aggregate amount amassed is at least Seventy-five million pesos(P75,000,000. 00) with the corresponding penalty of life imprisonment with perpetual absolute disqualification from holding any public office. However, RA 7659 (The Death Penalty Law) amended Section 2 of RA 7080, and lowered the amount to Fifty million pesos and increased the imposable penalty to death, to wit: Sec. 12. Section 2 of Republic Act No. 7080 (An Act Defining and Penalizing the Crime of Plunder) is hereby amended to read as follows: â€Å"Sec. 2. Definition of the Crime of Plunder; Penalties.– Any public officer who, by himself or in connivance with members of his family, relatives by affinity or consanguinity, business associates, subordinates or other persons, amasses, accumulates or acquires ill-gotten wealth through a combination or series of overt criminal acts as described in Section 1 (d) hereof in the aggregate amount or total value of at least Fifty million pesos (P50,000,000. 00) shall be guilty of the crime of plunder and shall be punished by reclusion perpetua to death.Any person who participated with the said public officer in the commission of an offense contributing to the crime of plunder shall likewise be punished for such offense. In the imposition of penalties, the degree of participation and the attendance of mitigating and extenuating circumstances, as provided by the Revised Penal Code, shall be considered by the court. The court shall declare any and all ill-gotten wealth and their interests and other incomes and assets including the properties and sha res of stocks derived from the deposit or investment thereof forfeited in favor of the State.† Section 4 of RA 7080 also prescribes the method for proving that the crime of plunder was committed. It states that for purposes of establishing the crime of plunder, it shall not be necessary to prove each and every criminal act done by the accused in furtherance of the scheme or conspiracy to amass, accumulate or acquire ill-gotten wealth, it being sufficient to establish beyond reasonable doubt a pattern of overt or criminal acts indicative of the overall unlawful scheme or conspiracy.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Anti Music Censorship Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Anti Music Censorship - Research Paper Example Various people have brought about diverse arguments concerning the issue; however, the query strongly remains, is music censorship ethical or not? Those in favor for music censorship believe that it should be censored to allow listeners to listen to pure music without many controversial lyrics, (Gram 42). Anti-music, censorship activists believe that censoring music is like violating artists’ rights to freedom and expression. Artists have the right to express themselves, their thoughts, beliefs and values through speaking, singing and rapping without any restriction. Whether one find musical work indecent, extensively depends on ones values and religious morals. These opinions alter from generation to generation and increasingly complicate the dilemma of music censorship, (Espejo 85). Experts agree that religious and ethical beliefs profoundly determine how people perceive censorship, and as generations come and go the shared beliefs may change. The American first amendment re gulates the government from exercising control over the media. The laws of the amendment barely apply to religious associations and societies because the federal government owns record firms and thus their music censorship is constitutional and lawful, (Nazum 45). Censoring music infringes the constitutional rights when the administration, its regulations and agencies imposes the restrictions themselves. Therefore, censoring music is like addressing society and corporate efforts to control the community based on what they hold right in accordance to their beliefs and principles. Open-mindedness as a crucial attribute of an individual is paramount to achieve a successful life. It fosters charity and approval, frees community from animosity and prejudice. At times, people dislike what they hear, but they should hear it anyway because other people have equal rights of expression as them. If somebody cannot tolerate what he is listening to, he should avoid hearing it, but pressuring oth ers to get rid of it is unethical. Similarly, artists have equal rights to express themselves, and citizens have a right to pay attention to it or not pay attention. Historically, people have evolved and enhanced in music and artwork, and censoring music and art is regression, (Gram 49). In fact, music control violates the provisions of the first amendment; it influences community (mainly the youth) and has multiple adverse economic impacts too. Therefore, music censorship is illegal as it violates people’s freedom to regulate and express their thoughts and beliefs. The first amendment of America’s constitution guarantees all citizens liberty to speech, and government, institutions or organizations have not right to infringe on other people’s rights whatsoever, (Korpe 57). Artwork is a form of speech and censoring music is like violating one’s right to speech – and infringing the first amendment that enforces the law. The US citizens have religious liberty, therefore, if somebody produces a song about atheism his artwork should not be controlled because it affects Muslim or Christian group. It is the right of the artist to sing, and if Christians or Muslims despise the song, they should pay less attention to it. People may disapprove what artistic industry is producing and communicating today, but as long as

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Demonstrates your understanding of communication theories by applying Essay

Demonstrates your understanding of communication theories by applying the theories we have studied - Essay Example According to Vygotsky, this zone refers to an area of exploration for which the learner is cognitively prepared but need assistance and social interaction to fully develop. Vygotsky therefore believes that a teacher or a more experienced peer has the ability to provide t he student with what is termed as scaffolding, which helps the student to develop complex skills. This paper provides an insightful analysis of Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory and its relevance in young children is thinking and talking, as well as sociocultural influence in youths’ participation in gambling behavior. According to Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, the most appropriate strategies for supporting the intellectual knowledge and skills of learners as well as enhancing intentional learning include collaborative leaning, modeling, discourse, and scaffolding. As mentioned earlier, his most prominent contribution is the concept of Zone of Proximal Development. In his own words, the Zone of Proximal Development refers to the distance between a child’s actual developmental level as dictated by independent problem solving, and the higher level of potential development as determined by problem solving under adult guidance or with support from more capable peers. In his journal article, Young Children Thinking and Talking: Using sociocultrual theory for multilayered analysis, Robbins (2012) applies the ideas and concepts of Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory in describing the thinking and communication of young children. According to Robbins(2012), Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory provides an rich information base upon which we can understand how the biological line of development and cultural line contribute towards the overall development of children’s thinking. He believes that the lower order mental processes with which children are born with are transformed into higher mental process through interaction with others as well as the mediation of various

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Chapter 10 & 11 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Chapter 10 & 11 - Assignment Example nizations safety, they supervise and monitor to ensure that all the safety requirements are being applied and they hire staff for the safety department. 2. Managers have been successful in motivating employees in using safety measures and ensuring organization’s safety with the help of incentive programs. Incentive programs also have a negative impact on the organization. Employees have manipulated incident reports and provided misleading information to managers to make sure that the manager continues using incentive programs. Due to manipulation and misleading data, managers have failed to counter safety issues at the right time. When managers stop incentive programs, employees return to their prior performance standards and in some cases standard of performance have even depleted. Maslow’s Hierarchy of need theory states that employees are motivated to fulfill their needs. Managers can motivate employees by helping employees fulfill these needs. The theory even states that individuals try to fulfill their basic needs first and then they pursue remaining needs. Managers can motivate employees to ensure that employees take care of the organization’s safety by providing them incentives which will help them purchase basic psychological needs such as food and shelter. An example of the safety needs is job security, if managers make employees feel that their jobs will not be taken away then employees will be motivated to ensure that their working environment is safe. Managers need to make the employees feel that they are a part of the organization; this will help in fulfilling employee’s belongingness need. Managers should provide work to the employees; this will fulfill employee’s self esteem needs. Once all the needs are fulfilled, emp loyees will start caring about the people around them and will make sure that their working environment is safe (Friend, 2010, 235). 4. McClelland stated that every individual is born with the need for power, affiliation

Monday, August 26, 2019

Zimbardo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Zimbardo - Essay Example Most people believe that they act according to their own values. If a person commits a crime, psychologists study this person in detail trying to identify what personal traits or events in biography forced motivated further criminal activities. Personal dispositions are not the only factor which makes an individual behave in a certain way. It is interesting to what extent social context motivates behavior of the individual. Surprisingly, it can become the major influence under certain circumstances. Dr. Zimbardo entitles this phenomenon of individual transformation Lucifer effect. According to Zimbardo, â€Å"evil is the exercise of power to harm, hurt and destroy† something or someone. There are certain conditions when dominance becomes the way to cope with a huge stress. For instance, the Abu Ghraib prison tortures happened in totally stressful atmosphere. War motivated hatred between US soldiers and Iraqi prisoners. The prison building was bombarded during the day and all people experienced daily fear to die. They did not leave the prison at all (Zimbardo). As a result, they transformed their stress into dominance over the weak. Zimbardo’s theory does not seek for the â€Å"bad apple†; it aims at finding a â€Å"bad barrel†. Any particular situation is a result of the system. If the system has some space for bad things to happen, they will happen. System can be represented by the organization, community group or the whole civilization. It involves a wide range of factors; cultural, legal and social norms restrain behavior of an individual (Zimbardo). In Abu Ghraib, the US military organization to control prisons was a failure. One person was assigned to control 3 prisons but she never showed up there; there was no supervision at all. People who worked in prisons had no day offs. They had 12 hour shifts and worked all day long. Higher rank officers ordered to torture the prisoners creating the situation of diffused responsibility. Functioning in that system

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Nurses Attitudes towards Euthanasia Research Paper - 1

Nurses Attitudes towards Euthanasia - Research Paper Example Nurses must deal with these problems keeping in mind the legal and professional implications of making any decision. A nurse must constantly combine â€Å"ethical reasoning and clinical judgment† (Nelson. 2006).   Medicine and advances in science and technology have led to an improvement in the quality of life and have resulted in the prolongation of the lifespan of an average person. This, in turn, leads us to one of the biggest ethical debates that nurses face and that is with respect to the withdrawal of care leading to a patient’s death or euthanasia. In Belgium and the Netherlands, laws declare that euthanasia is legal â€Å"under carefully delineated circumstances† and the Belgian euthanasia act defines it as the â€Å"administration of lethal drugs at the explicit request of the patient with the explicit intention of shortening the patient’s life† (Berghes, Casterle, & Gastmans, 2005). Nurses are involved in end of life care and its withdrawal or administration of lethal drugs internationally and so their position in this ethical debate is very important and brings them to the front stage. End of life care poses ethical dilemmas for nurses because it is hard for them to witness suffering and they have the urge to end it. In addition, there are inadequate resources like few hospital beds in the Intensive Care Unit, different value judgments and the moral distress in ending a person’s life despite their request for the nurse to do so (Oberle, Hughes, 2001). This debate has ethical, cultural, religious, moral, and legal nuances that add to the nurses’ distress.   The key element in this debate is the fact that autonomy is very important as stated in the Belgian euthanasia act too.

Experimental Designs I Statistics Project Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Experimental Designs I - Statistics Project Example 4. It sets the rate of alpha error to the experiment error rate, which is usually 0.05. This is divided by comparisons in totality to type 1 error control if there is a consideration of multiple comparisons. In case, the bonferroni test is applied, there will be a print out of multiple comparison tables by SPSS providing mean differences in dependent variables among groups. The importance of these differences is also given showing 0.05 to be the differences significant level. 6. Post hoc comparisons are performed when a researcher is finding out differences, which is not limited to an individual’s theory (Gonzalez, 2008). Many tests that are carried out under post hoc apply the q statistics. If group means comparisons are chosen because of their large size, there is a variability increase expected. This must be compensated by the researcher through application of more tests, or else there will be occurrences of type 1 errors. 8. Repeated measures ANOVA is more powerful because every factor controls itself. In these designs, differences in individual subjects do not interfere with treatment group differences (Kulinskaya & Dollinger, 2007). SS stands for variation; df means the degree of freedom; MS is the variance that is arrived at by SS/df, and F is the ratio test got by dividing between MS by within MS. In the table above, the MS of within-group is less than between groups which shows that the grouping has no effect. The grouping has been done in three categories, that is, df within groups being (3-1) =2. There are 4 people in every group, therefore, df within groups is the group number multiplied by one less the number of each group: 3*2= 6. These are denominator’s and numerator’s df. From the F table with 0.0 5significance level, 5.14 is the critical value. As the F value that has been computed is less, it can be concluded that grouping variables have no effect on dependent variable. SS stands

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Employee Compensation and Benefits Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Employee Compensation and Benefits - Essay Example However, it is worthwhile to note that it is expected to vary annually given the fact that the employee’s selections may vary. From the above, salary is the biggest portion; and it includes commissions and other bonuses that may arise. Of important to note is that salary determine the level of some benefits including insurances. Health and welfare benefit which includes education reimbursement; vision and dental coverage are important benefits that extend to the employees’ families in order for the employee to have the needed resources to maintain good health at a recommended and affordable cost. As such, it is an advantage to the company given that it increases the well being of its employee contributing to the rise of productivity and growth (Mitchell et al., 2003). The saving and retirement plans are equally important as they will provide the employee with resources to assist in planning his or her retirement. Additionally, these benefits guarantee or offer an employee a cost-of-living adjusted earnings for life in retirement. As such, it reassures the employee that the future is taken care of and as such, s/he is therefore, able to concentrate and work towards accomplishing the company’s set objectives. It s worth noting that most employees understand the benefits of retirement plans and most a percentage of potential employees are said o refuse jobs that lack the retirement benefits. Offering an attractive retirement benefit will not benefit the employee but will also be an advantage to the company given that it will lower turnover rates. Essentially, this benefit will assist the company not only be in a position to recruit talented employees but also retain and boost their working morale. Equally enough social security and medicare a re significant benefits to the employees and indirectly to the company. As noted above, the company need to attract and maintain a high value workforce so as

Friday, August 23, 2019

Single Soldiers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Single Soldiers - Essay Example The truth is that single soldiers make up more than a third of the United States’ army (BOSS site). These soldiers are fighting machines, dedicated to god and country. Nevertheless it helps them to have support at home and not to be all alone. The Army has recognized this, creating Better Opportunities for Single Soldiers (BOSS). According to its website: BOSS provides an avenue for single Soldiers to surface issues and to take part in activities but does not set policy and other guidance on issues. BOSS is intended to enhance command authority, prerogative, and responsibility in maintaining standards of conduct, good order, and discipline, not to dilute. This is an excellent first step in recognizing the problems faced by single soldiers. Drawing such people together into a cohesive unit in order to address their quality of life issues and their morale is a key development in the history of the evolution of the army. These individuals, often young, need sustenance. The Army can provide this too. There are other unique challenges faced by the single soldiers. The benefit structure the army provides is geared towards soldiers with families. This is true of other armies around the world. An excellent example was recently reported in Canada. Canada may have a much smaller standing army than the United States, but there too the problem of single soldiers has surfaced in a public and contentious manner. The families of four unmarried soldiers that were killed in Afghanistan stepped forward recently to file human-rights complaints in that country. They say that the government discriminated in favour of married troops by paying a $250,000 death benefit. According to the Canadian Press: A federal human-rights tribunal rejected the complaint of Lincoln and Laurie Dinning because Veterans Affairs abruptly decided to recognize their sons girlfriend as his common-law spouse,

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Improvement in Operational Efficiency Due Essay Example for Free

Improvement in Operational Efficiency Due Essay IT Investments ply chain integration; and euro conversion. Many IT landmarks have been achieved during this period: more than 4 billion Web pages on the Internet; creation of software to combat cyber worms, viruses, and warfare; millions of distributed databases; and widespread utilization of data warehouses and data mining for decision support systems. To support these IT initiatives and to achieve these landmarks, IT budgets of most companies during this decade Copyright  © 2006, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. Information Resources Management Journal, 19(2), 18-36, April-June 2006 19 increased substantially (Seewald, 2002). There is, however, a growing criticism of escalating IT investments (Mears Dubie, 2002) and their lack of justification (Krochmel, 1999). ERP systems are software systems to support and to automate the business processes, providing timely and accurate enterprise-wide information for decision making. ERP systems have a long history of evolution. The production scheduling, material ordering, and product shipment systems evolved from manual reorder point systems for material procurement to computerized Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) to Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II) systems that integrated MRP and capacity requirements planning to Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) that further integrated MRP-II and shop floor and device control systems, and finally to ERP systems. Much of the streamlining of materials procurement process was achieved by MRP and MRP-II. By the late 1980s, tens of thousands of firms were using MRP-II systems (Rondeau Litteral, 2001). The SAP R/3 modules and submodules consisting of sales and distribution, materials management, warehouse management, quality management, production planning for process industries, financial accounting, controlling, project system, and office communication were expected to reduce inventories, improve cash management, and cut down operating expenses. Kalling (2003) recently provided a theoretical framework in which resource-based views (RBV) are advanced to understand how ERP can provide sustainable competitive advantage. The RBV is not universally accepted as a final explanation of competitive advantage. Some believe that dynamic capabilities, not resources, are the source of competitive advantage. It is possible that ERP provides both unique resources as well as dynamic capabilities in the form of improved information and decision making to improve competitive advantage. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems To avoid struggling with integrating myriad IT applications, many companies implemented ERP systems that required substantial investment of time, internal resources, and capital, resulting in significant organizational change (Dorien Wolf, 2002). Often, ERP system implementation is accompanied by other improvements and enhancements in existing legacy systems. Due to many simultaneous changes that accompany ERP system implementation, it is hard to attribute any performance changes after ERP system installation solely to ERP systems. However, ERP system implementation is, by far, the most criticized aspect of IT investments. ERP systems require outlays ranging from a few million dollars to several hundred million dollars (Mabert et al. , 2001). Despite high expenditures, ERP implementations have resulted in problems. Rushed software installations and inadequate training are blamed for well-publicized troubles with ERP. In 1999, soon after the rollout of its ERP system, Hershey Food Corp. , in the third quarter of that year, lost $60. 4 million due to problems in customer service, warehousing, order processing, and timely shipments to retailers. ERP implementation problems of Whirlpool Corporation and W. L. Gore Associates Inc. also have received considerable attention (Collett, 1999). The bankruptcy of FoxMeyer (a drug distribution company) in 1996 is directly attributed by many to flawed implementation of ERP systems. www. igi-global. com/article/improvement-operational-efficiency-due-erp/1289 www. igi-global. com/chapter/tutor/13373 www. igi-global. com/chapter/object-database-benchmarks/14575

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Credit Card Fraud Detection through Data Mining

Credit Card Fraud Detection through Data Mining Abstract With the increasing fraudsters day to day, the fallacious transaction is rapidly growing thus making the frauds in this scenario a matter of high importance. Huge database patterns are identified by various data mining models assisting to strengthen and detect the credit card fraud. This research primarily focusses on Credit Card Fraud Detection analyzing two different methods used to detect fraudulent systems and implement the new technologies to the system to minimize frauds in credit card transactions Keywords- Data Mining, Methods, Credit Card, Fraud Detection, Hybrid Technology, Neural Network, Support Vector System Data Mining is filled with application growth opportunities and research which are reliable and usable from the data. Rapid development of e-commerce, usage of credit card has become well known mode for online and regular transactions, increasing the credit card fraud simultaneously. Fraud detection is a complicated problem as unwanted transactions are hidden in the authoriosed transaction. Due to security reasons and also to gain trust of users credit card fraud detection has now become important to companies. Neural Networks [1], Bayesian Network [2], Hidden NaÃÆ' ¯ve Bayes Network [12], Dempster Shafer [10] are few methods to be justified in detecting the credit card fraudulent system. With the new technologies, it has now become easy for the companies and banks to detect the fraudulent system. With the growing credit card fraud problem in the industry this literature review will help us to understand and detect the techniques involved in detecting the fraudulent system. We will be describing two different approaches Neural Network and Support vector machine approach thus learning a new method to minimize the fraudulent system. This paper helps us to analyze data mining methods with respect to credit card fraud system. A. Neural Network Approach Neural network fraud detection method is primarily based on working of a human brain. Just as the human brain is capable of learning things from the previous experiences and uses the knowledge to decide things occurring in day to day problems the same strategy is used while detecting a credit card fraud with Neural Network system. Neural Network can reflect a small part of complexity and regulation Banks use this kind of network method to detect the credit card fraud. The moment a transaction takes place there are a set of attributes attached to it characterizing the account holder, the amount and the merchant. Considering an example, for the Mellow Bank Fraud Detection Feasibility Study a particular archived amount of data was used for model development as the authorized data wasnt easily available due to security reasons. P-RCE [3] neural network technique is used. P-RCE is used for pattern recognition as it helps to describe what exactly the human brain is thinking about. P-RCE has a single cell layer which outputs a numeric response called as Fraud score. The lower the threshold the more no. of credit card fraud is detected. Higher the credit card detection threshold less no. of fraud is detected. With 2000000 transactions of Mellon Banks data from Oct-Nov 1991, nearly measuring 50 accounts per day 40% of the fraudulent transaction was observed but prior to use of P-RCE method in Mellon Banks feasibility study the result came out to be 1 fraudulent transaction per week on reviewing 750 account per day. The improvement in the fraud detection performance was undeniably considerable. The p attern recognition method can actually help the banks to reduce 20-40% (in total) credit card fraud losses. B. Support Virtual Machine Approach An online transaction has four entities: credit card holder, credit card, the seller and the buyer. There is an independent history of transactions with each set of entities in the data set. Each entity keeps almost a consistent behavior pattern in authorized transactions. The risk of a transaction can be estimated by calculating the inconsistency of a transaction from the history of authorized transactions. Let us define Xe(t) {a1, a2, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦, an) as the transactional set in the entitys history is equivalent to f(t) beingF(t) {seller, buyer, holder, card) set of entities. We calculate the score of transactions, by defining l = (l1 , l19) [3] with c as value of a feature, as SC(l,e,t) = count(c,Xe(t)) The idea to calculate how near a transaction is related to past authorized transactions therefore we consider only those transactions that are proved legitimate from Xe(t). To train and test a classifier (weight and score) we have a vector in conjunction with the classification: SVM (Support Vector Machines). They are essentially supervised learning models used for analyzing data and recognition of patterns. Using the traditional methods, raw data was classified with SVM to check the impact of general weight in the outcomes and reduce SVM complexity as well. SVM classifier was used in classifying the transactions as fraud or authorized resulting in 40-50% in most months with false alarm rate 10-12%. The online credit card fraud system can be detected and improvised with the Big Data Technologies framework. The main aim is to achieve the goal of fusing various detection methods to enhance the accuracy. A workflow was proposed [13] containing common designs of fraudulent system thus making it easier to integrate identification of fraud system. In recent years, big data platforms were released to process and operate data including MapReduce and Apache Hadoop frameworks (open source for MapReduce). Two components are primarily considered: spouts and bolts. The source of streams is referred to as spout which reads and sends tuples from external source into topology. The data processing is done by Bolt. With the reference, the paper proposes a hybrid structure with Big data efficient in solving challenges related to performance and integration. The basic workflow is defined [13] in the figure. QF- Quick filter, DSA Demper Shafer Adder (combining different fraud scores and generating a merged result), EF- Explicit filter. This workflow is designed by combining different algorithms together for a higher accuracy like two DSAs are combined so that we can aggregate their fraud score to get better accuracy; 2) Another aspect can be considered by combining supervised unsupervised fraud approaches to examine a good cover of types of fraud; 3) The filters used: QF detects only the behavior of card holder whereas EF detects the historical data in the whole model. So, to achieve faster filter we can combine QF and EF as well as to get better efficiency the combination is good to go. In this paper, we have reviewed two data mining detection methods of credit card fraud. The research papers which arent considered here might have comprehensive methods to research and implementations of new detection techniques. This research paper describes: The Neural Network can be implemented in banks to reduce the credit card fraudulent system with it P-RCE algorithm. 2) Support Vector machine can detect the frauds in ecommerce system real time but isnt much reliable for complex frauds. 3) Hybrid technology framework, the workflow is essential to detect frauds in offline system as the method but can improve accuracy, performance and efficiency. To develop a credit card fraud system, the neural network method is best suited according to my understanding as it is efficient, accurate and cost effective thus implemented in Mellon Bank. Neural Network method has some failures as well but gradually with new technology it can overcome. But to develop a strong fraud detection system using credit card we need to combine few more complex detecting methods. References [1] S. Ghosh and D. L. Reilly, Credit card fraud detection with a neural network, in System Sciences, 1994. Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Hawaii International Conference on, vol. 3, Jan 1994, pp. 621-630. [2] G. F. Cooper and E. Herskovits. A Bayesian Method for the Induction of Probabilistic Networks from Data. Machine Learning, 9(4):309-347, 1992. Santiago, Gabriel Preti, Adriano Pereira, and Roberto Hirata Jr. A modeling approach for credit card fraud detection in electronic payment services. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 2328-2331. ACM, 2015. Online Credit Card Fraud Detection: A Hybrid Framework with Big Data Technologies You Daià ¢Ã‹â€ -, Jin Yanà ¢Ã‹â€ -, Xiaoxin Tangà ¢Ã‹â€ -, Han Zhaoà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚   and Minyi Guoà ¢Ã‹â€ - à ¢Ã‹â€ -Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  School of Computer Science Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China Philip K. Chan, Wei Fan, Andreas 1. Prodromidir, and Salvotore 1. Stalfo, Distributed Data Mining in Credit Card Fraud Detection 2016 IEEE TrustCom/BigDataSE/ISPA H. Michael Chung Fredric C. Gey Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, and Information Retrieval, Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2001 Agrawal, Ayushi, Shiv Kumar, and Amit Kumar Mishra. Implementation of Novel Approach for Credit Card Fraud Detection. In Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2015. [2008] Abhinav Srivastava, Amlan Kundu, Shamik Sural and Arun K. Majumdar, CreditCard Fraud Detection Using Hidden Markov Model IEEE, Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol. 5, No 1., January-March D. L. Reilly and L. N. Cooper, An overview ofneural networks: early models to real worldsystems, in An Introduction to Neural and Electronic Networks, ed. S. F. Zometzer, J. L. Davis and C. Lau, 227-248, Academic Press, (1990). S. Panigrahi, A. Kundu, S. Sural, and A. Majumdar, Credit card fraud detection: A fusion approach using dempstershafer theory and Bayesian learning, Information Fusion, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 354 363, 2009. Z. D. Zhao and M. s. Shang, User-based collaborative-filtering recommendation algorithms on hadoop, in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 2010. WKDD 10. Third International Conference on, Jan 2010,pp. 478-481. [12] Jiang, Liangxiao, Harry Zhang, and Zhihua Cai. A novel Bayes model: Hidden naive Bayes. IEEE Transactions on knowledge and data engineering 21, no. 10 (2009): 1361-1371. [13] Dai, You, Jin Yan, Xiaoxin Tang, Han Zhao, and Minyi Guo. Online Credit Card Fraud Detection: A Hybrid Framework with Big Data Technologies. In Trustcom/BigDataSE/Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹ SPA, 2016 IEEE, pp. 1644-1651.IEEE, 2016.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Mergers And Acquisitions Management Essay

The Mergers And Acquisitions Management Essay In May of 1998, two of the largest car manufacturers in the business Daimler-Benz and Chrysler Corporation agreed to combine their organizations in what they agreed to be an egalitarian merger. Egalitarianism is a cultural value which represents the opposite of a hierarchy (Brett and Okumura, 1998) and which communicates the nature of the companys social structure (Brett, 2000). Whereas an organizational social structure defined by hierarchy demands respect, advantage, and authority to those in the top tier of the corporation, an egalitarian social structure places less demands on lower-level staff members, based on the premise that superior status is subject to change (Brett, 2000). However, an egalitarian merger would prove to be a challenge as German and American styles of management appeared to be polar opposites. German organizational structure was authoritarian, bureaucratic, and centralized; while American organizational structure was mostly participative, empowered, and ega litarian. To further complicate company relations, a statement emitted by Jurgen Schrempp in an interview with the Financial Times (1999), indicated the true intentions of the transaction, stating that the merger was never intended to be among equals. Such a statement revealed inherent flaws in communication which would disrupt perceived trustworthiness of Daimler-Benz, as well as control issues based on mutual misunderstanding as a result mutual insensitivity to cultural differences. Because an autocratic management style predominated in Daimler Benz, the acquisition instilled a sense of entitlement to authoritarian values within the German company, imposing upon Chrysler a top-down management approach which disregarded existing Chrysler company values and interpersonal dynamics. However, Chrysler also failed to recognize and adapt to dominating German styles of operation, choosing to adopt a more passive approach which reduced effective leadership within the American workforce. Because cross-cultural integration was so poorly prioritized within the Daimler-Chrysler merger, steps to generating a more adaptive response to the merger are recommended. First and foremost, both companies should create contingencies to account for the integration of potentially dissonant company values. Culture is a highly influential variable which must be thoroughly researched and communicated to both parties in order to create a higher understanding of mutual approaches. Once culturally sensitized, organizations must create and implement new organizational values which transcend both parties particular cultures, in order to create a third culture in which communication and productivity is based on awareness, respect, and commitment to fulfilling mutual company goals. Thus, by appointing an integration manager, the acquired company should report arising doubts stemming from the cultural aspects of the merger. In addition, company restructuring and related downsizing should be do ne as quickly and as respectfully as possible, in order to increase organizational efficiency. Finally, inclusive team-building amongst both entities should be promoted in order to generate innovative problem-solving ideas which strengthen and unite company relations. What is a merger? In general, a merger can be defined as the integration of an acquired company into the existing, acquiring company. In terms of finance, an acquiring company purchases the majority of shares from the acquired company, thus merging both assets into one expanding share. A merger tends to be a permanent arrangement and usually the company who acquires the shares retains its namesake. The International Competition Network identifies three major types of merger transactions: Share Acquisitions, Asset Acquisitions, and Joint Ventures. A share acquisition is defined by obtaining a controlling equity interest in the target such that it can exercise decisive influence over the targets business operations (ICN, 2010). On the other hand, an asset acquisition is defined as a buyout strategy in which valuable elements rather than shares of a financially unstable company are purchased. Furthermore, the acquiring company can choose which specific assets or liabilities it wants to purchase. Finall y, a joint venture is defined as a partnership between two companies which participate in a transaction of shared risks and assets for mutual benefit. Joint ventures are commonly proposed to domestic companies of a designated region by foreign companies who wish to expand their markets. In this transaction, the foreign company usually provides an advantage in technology and materials while the domestic company provides established contacts, brand recognition, and fulfillment of required government procedures. Synergy: Reasons for Mergers Synergy is the belief that current productivity levels and overall value of two separate companies will be greater following the integration of both. Schweiger Very (2003) identify four elements which comprise synergy: cost, revenue, market power, and intangibles. A cost synergy implies reducing overall organizational costs of administration and sales, as well as promoting functional consolidation and optimizing sales force and distribution, among others. Revenue synergies are associated with increasing volume of sales by selling products throughout a variety of markets with the intention of reducing fixed production costs. Market power is related to the acquisition of a competing market in order to maintain or increase product prices. Finally, intangibles refer to the ability to successfully transfer expertise and brand-name power to the acquired company (Haspeslagh Jemison, 1991). Synergies provide a company with the motivation necessary to pursue a merger. Supported by the various synergies are various strategic reasons for pursuing a merger. Schweiger Very (2003) identify 5 particular objectives to be fulfilled by mergers: geographic market consolidation, extension of technology, services or products, and geographic market expansion, among entering a new business and vertical integration which is the process of becoming a supplier or distributor in order to increase company value. Once a company has been acquired and the merger fulfilled, it is important to fulfill certain variables in order to achieve a smooth transition of company management. The level and speed of integration are crucial to organizational adaptation and will vary in success depending on applied integration strategy, organizational culture, and employed acculturation strategies. Acculturation refers to the process in which the acquired company adopts the acquiring companys organizational culture as its own. It is argued that a successful integration of company values is a greater predictor of overall company progress than financial or strategic factors (Larsson Lubatkin, 2001). An acquired company which retains a high degree of autonomy and cultural identity is indicative of a successful integration. However, a company which abandons its cultural identity and structure in favor of the acquiring companys identity suggests previous failure and distrust of proper capacities to succeed. Quality of communication is also a fundamental factor in achieving post-merger success. Poor communication between organizations can lead to a perceived lack of trust and caring by the acquired company, as well as a decrease in commitment and satisfaction. In addition, the degree of retained autonomy displayed by the acquired company directly relates to the level of integration achieved by the company: A higher level of autonomy is suggestive of a low level of integration, and vice versa. Although a certain level of autonomy can be beneficial for the acquired company, it can prove to be counterproductive if it does not correspond to the defining terms of the merger acquisition. Mergers and the Importance of Organizational Change Change provides a company with the opportunity to develop, expand, and progress. Future-oriented theories define organizational change as the process of setting, executing, and renewing company goals in order to achieve an ideal state of relevance and innovation. Similarly, life-cycle theories explain change as an externally-dependent process which evolves through various stages: birth (or emergence), growth (or development), maturation, and decline. Finally, dialectical theory compares organizations to multicultural societies with clashing values which generate change. In any case, an organization which embraces change demonstrates its capability to adapt and thrive on an ever-evolving marketplace. Similarly, employees who adapt to implemented organizational changes experience enhanced satisfaction in their performance, additional to as a greater sense of involvement in their work environment. If embraced properly, positively-promoted change can create a stimulating environment ripe for innovation, as well as a renewed sense of commitment to the company. Thus, effective leadership during transitional states of implemented change is crucial to decreasing employee stress while increasing overall productivity (Halkos, 2012). Reasons for Failure of Organizational Change Many factors contribute to failure to adapt to change within an organization. Specifically, there are 6 fundamental factors which influence unsuccessful implementation of change: premature or insufficient willingness to change, lack of contingencies to support the change, expecting immediate results, focus on change as opposed to results, leadership and management deficiencies, and divergence between planned strategy and circumstances of change (Yhang, Zuo, Yu, 2009). In addition, research by Amburgey, Kelly, Barnett (1993) has found support for Hannan Freemans (1984) Structural Inertia Theory, which states that both internal and external constraints greatly influence the outcome of organizational change. Section 1: Daimler-Chrysler Merger: A Cultural Mismatch Q.1 Mergers and Acquisitions take place to realize the synergies between the two or more companies involved. Using Cultural theories, explain why do you think the Daimler-Chrysler merger failed to realize the synergies that were expected from it? The merger between Daimler-Chrysler failed to fulfill synergic expectancies because appropriate steps to ensure adequate integration between two organizational cultures were not implemented. Daimler-Benz did not effectively communicate their true intentions regarding the merger with Chrysler, initially setting expectancies for a joint-venture equalitarian status which was later revoked by Daimler-appointed, Chrysler USA CEO Juergen Schrempp. This lack of communication created expectancies of equality and autonomy among Chrysler employees which were disregarded post-merger. However, Chrysler USA showed lack of leadership in adapting to the new model of organizational structure implemented by Daimler-Benz, thus increasing levels of stress among employees while reducing perceived trust in leadership capabilities, level of commitment to the company, productivity and job satisfaction. Cultural differences were vast, and failed to adapt to typical inclusion challenges faced by foreign companies intending to establish their presence in domestic markets. Whereas the German organization displayed the level of formality, precision, bureaucracy and orientation to detail typical of autocratic and bureaucratic styles of management, leadership within Chrysler USA inclined towards a participative approach which valued empowerment and egalitarian relations. In order to minimize cultural clash, Schrempp allowed each company to retain their own structural and cultural approaches, suggesting the adoption of a separatist mode of acculturation. However, the lack of communication which accompanied this decision failed to address the uncertainties in organizational procedure brought by the merger, in addition to the true intentions of Daimler-Benz to acquire the company as a subsidiary and not as an equal partner. Thus, the true nature of the merger was revealed in the way Daimler- Benz promoted cultural assimilation without regard to existing structure in Chrysler USA. Q.2 Many a Cross Cultural mergers have failed because proper attention was not given to the difference in cultures between the two companies. What issues should be addressed to make cross culture merger a success? Include an Action plan in your recommendation section. In order for a cross-culture merger to be a success, cultural issues must be assessed and addressed as thoroughly as possible in order to dispel uncertainty which may give rise to increasing tension and diminished productivity in the workplace. To further any plans without assessing overall adaptation to newly-implemented changes would hinder any opportunities for organizational development. A merger that is both culturally aware and financially sound is fundamental to achieving success as a newly-formed corporation entity. Even though Daimler-Benz eventually attempted to increase cultural awareness within its organization by promoting seminars on cultural awareness, learning the language and experimenting with a casual dress code, cultural integration remained ineffective as both parties were still heavily entrenched in the bases of their pre-existing organizational structure. American employees were encouraged to learn the German language and increase specificity in their planning, but remained fundamentally adrift in their leadership while their German counterparts continued to eliminate Chrysler authority by replacing top-tier management with German executives. Essentially, both organizations resisted the changes implemented by the merger and did not manage a successful integration of company cultures. Because of the complexity involved in adapting and conforming to external cultural values, a new approach focusing on promoting a Third Culture has been suggested by a growing body of research as a way to demonstrate respect for pre-existing cultural identities within the organization. Yan and Luo (2001) suggest a series of actions to motivate intercultural learning. A partners level of commitment and negotiating skills should be thoroughly assessed; flow of knowledge should be constantly improved through effective communication; and inter-organizational trust should be reinforced (Graen, 2003). In addition, Graen Wakabayashi (1994) suggest an alignment of diverging cultures by implementing the LMX Third Culture Way, an overall procedural strategy which encourages mutual respect among cultures, as well as the acceptance and commitment of both parties to a mutual way of fulfilling the merger transactions objectives. Subsequently, acquired knowledge should be integrated successfully i n organizational practices (Graen, 2003), and knowledge leaks should be prevented in order to maintain organizational unity and edge. Similarly, overdependence in either one of the parties should be avoided, instead incentivizing employees from both parties to provide efficient and innovative suggestions. Finally, all acquired knowledge should be implemented in company culture and promoted through frequent and effective communication, and consultancy and support for both parties should be provided throughout every stage of the merging process. Such support would assist organizational transition by promoting a general understanding of distinct cultural values and potential attitudes and behaviors related to each of the involved parties. In turn, promoting a companys own awareness helps develop consciousness of typical behaviors inherent in the company and their influence on others, thus developing a greater level of cultural sensitivity which fosters more effective inter-management a nd management-employee relationships. Finally, constant promotion and reinforcement of third-culture values increase trust and perceived competence among both entities, increasing the overall effectiveness of communication. Section 2: Renault Enters India with a Joint Venture Q1. Examine the factors that influenced Renaults Decision to choose a joint venture entry mode as opposed to Green Field entry mode to enter the Indian market. Include in your answer an explanation of how the characteristics of India have affected this decision. As previously discussed, a joint venture is a strategic merger approach typically employed by a company that wishes to corner a foreign market. By approaching Mahindra and Mahindra (subsidiary of Nissan) as a joint venture, it seizes the opportunity to create a lasting, egalitarian relationship between both parties, in a dynamic which delegates autonomy and expertise to the Indian company while benefitting from the familiarity of its brand name and knowledge of domestic markets. However, profitable benefits are mutual as Mahindra and Mahindra disregard their allegedly small stake in the Indian subsidiary of Ford in order to gain a 20 per cent share of the total auto market in India. Q2. Discuss the main advantages and disadvantages for Renault using a Joint Venture mode compared to a Green Field entry mode. Explain the main differences between the two modes in terms of control, risk, and flexibility. Include an action plan which includes some steps to portray Renault as a good corporate citizen to reduce its political risk. In general, a joint venture with Mahindra and Mahindra allowed Renault to benefit from valuable, strategic assets, as well as a quicker and more formidable entry into a competitive, locally-cornered market. Had Renault approached the Indian market through Green Field Entry, it would have spent additional costs in starting a foreign subsidiary and forgone the invaluable expertise and established market shares it earned through the partnership with Mahindra. Furthermore, an analytical gaze at the Indian automobile market reveals that India is developing exponentially, with its southern cluster alone holding a 35 percent revenue share. Had Renault opted for the Green Field approach, it would have had to face a deeply competitive market with no realistic, cost-effective strategy of entry. Alternatively, both companies have demonstrated a successful adaptation to the merger by focusing on the strategies necessary to achieve mutual benefit. As previously suggested by Yan and Luo (2004), both Renault and Mahindra promote business interactions characterized by Third Culture elements, by incentivizing effective performance by communicating their company objectives and expectations in a direct manner, also reinforcing trust and productivity among both organizations. However, one frequent problem resulting from joint ventures relates to attitude changes by one of the owners (Miller Glen, 1997), suggesting difficulties in aspects of control. Diverging interests in products, disregard for more cost-effective sourcing, and mutual misunderstanding based on insensitivity to cultural differences are only a few of the issues arising from control problems. Thus, it is important for both Renault and Mahindra to continue fostering a Third Culture approach to their relations by contin ually generating cultural awareness and securing valuable knowledge produced by their interactions and joint experiences, as well as by increasing overall organizational flexibility when approaching overlapping company structures. Conclusions Mergers occur for various reasons, which include: increased mutual profit, market power, and intangible assets such as shared expertise. However, the process of merging to distinct companies with particular organizational cultures and structures can prove to be challenging to both parties, especially in regards to integrating new objectives and culturally-influenced expectations of productivity. As seen in the case study of Daimler-Chrysler, an inappropriate communication dynamic, as well as intercultural resistance, diminished the potential to achieve greater levels of productivity and satisfaction among both parties and failed to extinguish increasing levels of stress and distrust among the acquiring and acquired entities. In order to increase opportunities for a successful multicultural merger, both organizations should raise cultural awareness amongst each other through direct and respectful feedback and a constant and secure influx of knowledge which reinforces a general and uni ting third culture.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Essays --

As a growing phenomenon Word of Mouth has evolved as one of the most influential source of marketing. Word of mouth can simply be defined as any business action that earns a customer recommendation, it’s what companies use to gain a sense of interest by a consumer that cause them to experience and share. Word of mouth builds brands, increases sales, and builds conversations both consumer to consumer and consumer to brand. It is believed that the power of Word of mouth would only increase in the coming years as people become more interconnected through social media. Word of mouth relies fundamentally on people trusting you, as a medium of Word of Mouth, it’s basically about real people and when real people trust you and they love what you do, they are going to tell their friends. Delivering the best product in a category, providing great customer experience, and rewarding customer loyalty are all business actions that earns customer recommendations. Recommendations are important to marketers, because when a recommendation is earned it indicates preference from a customer, leads to purchase and a strong probability that the customer will tell others through word of mouth. The most effective word of mouth marketing follows five principals which are Credible, respectful, social, measurable and repeatable. Credible word of mouth is honest and authentic messages from brand to customers and from customers to customers. Respectable word of mouth is responsible and trustworthy behavior as it relates to privacy matters between brand and their consumers. Social word of mouth involves brand listening, participating, responding and engaging in conversations online and offline. Measurable word of mouth is the ability to evaluate, monitor and ... ...n an easy disclosure you’re basically free and clear. So how does a company go about building a kind of trust that would make Word of Mouth work well? First and foremost it depends on the company is the basic answer but this does require a couple fundamental and philosophical changes in how a company runs its business. They have to first stop doing things which are deceptive, treat customers well, realize that customer service is not an expense item and that customer service is the core of their Word of Mouth engine. Companies need to rethink why customers buy from them, which is simply because they are liked and so are their products. Being remarkable and earning respect is not achieved by making a bigger bottle, having a super sale or investing in a super bowl ad but to just gain a character that consumers adore and would like to tell the world about.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Role of Turkey in the Pacification and Rebuilding of Iraq Essay

The Role of Turkey in the Pacification and Rebuilding of Iraq The relationship between Kurds and Turkey has long been fraught with complications.? As rebuilding of Iraq is poised to begin, the question arises as to whether Turkey should take part in the reconstruction. I believe that Turkey is able to take a role in the peace process in Iraq, for it would prove advantageous to both Ankara and Washington.? However, I do not think that Turkey should take a role in restructuring, for their presence would undermine the peace process.? A role for Turkey would be resented not only by the Kurds in northern Iraq, but by the Iraqis as a whole. The Kurds are concentrated in northern Iraq.? Though it would be incorrect to assume that the Kurds are indicative of the Iraqi people, the Kurds do constitute a sizable minority, which accounts for approximately twenty percent of Iraq?s population.[i]? The Kurds have been marginalized for hundreds of years, most notably after the Great Powers reneged on their guarantee in the 1920 Treaty of Sevres to establish an independent Kurdish state and in 1991 when George Bush Senior encouraged the Kurds to ?take matters into their own hands,? and rebel against Saddam Hussein?s Ba?athist Party, only to withdraw from Iraq shortly thereafter.[ii]? The Kurds are justified in resenting their derogatory treatment.? They were, it is believed, the region?s original inhabitants, present in Iraq in the seventh century.[iii] The Kurds have been ruthlessly targeted by Saddam Hussein?s Ba?athist Party.? In 1975, the government in Baghdad initiated a process of ?Arabization? in northern Iraq, methodically exterminating the Kurdish population there.[iv] In 1988, the Anfal military campaign, led... ... Over Kurds. APS Diplomat Recorder.? 4 October 2003. [xxxv]? Purvis, Andrew.? ?Gathering Forces with Turkey. Time.? 10 February 2003: 23. [xxxvi]? ?Turkey?s Role Worries Kurds. The San Diego Union-Tribune.? 21 October 2003:? B2. [xxxvii]? ?The Battle for Northern Iraq. The Economist.? 22 March 2003. [xxxviii]? ?Turkey Moves Into Northern Iraq. APS Diplomat News Service.? 31 March 2003. [xxxix]? Ibid. [xl]? Gorvett, Jon.? ?Staking a Claim. The Middle East.? May 2003. [xli]? ?No Kurdish Imperialism for Us. The Economist.? 30 August 2003: 33. [xlii]? ?Kurds Block Turkish Mission. APS Diplomat Recorder.? 9 August 2003. [xliii]? Berenson, Alex.? ?The Struggle for Iraq. The New York Times.? 15 October 2003. [xliv]? Howard, Michael.? ?Kurds Say Turkish Troops Will Bring Chaos. The Observer.? 16 October 2003: 5. [xlv]? The Role of Turkey in the Pacification and Rebuilding of Iraq Essay The Role of Turkey in the Pacification and Rebuilding of Iraq The relationship between Kurds and Turkey has long been fraught with complications.? As rebuilding of Iraq is poised to begin, the question arises as to whether Turkey should take part in the reconstruction. I believe that Turkey is able to take a role in the peace process in Iraq, for it would prove advantageous to both Ankara and Washington.? However, I do not think that Turkey should take a role in restructuring, for their presence would undermine the peace process.? A role for Turkey would be resented not only by the Kurds in northern Iraq, but by the Iraqis as a whole. The Kurds are concentrated in northern Iraq.? Though it would be incorrect to assume that the Kurds are indicative of the Iraqi people, the Kurds do constitute a sizable minority, which accounts for approximately twenty percent of Iraq?s population.[i]? The Kurds have been marginalized for hundreds of years, most notably after the Great Powers reneged on their guarantee in the 1920 Treaty of Sevres to establish an independent Kurdish state and in 1991 when George Bush Senior encouraged the Kurds to ?take matters into their own hands,? and rebel against Saddam Hussein?s Ba?athist Party, only to withdraw from Iraq shortly thereafter.[ii]? The Kurds are justified in resenting their derogatory treatment.? They were, it is believed, the region?s original inhabitants, present in Iraq in the seventh century.[iii] The Kurds have been ruthlessly targeted by Saddam Hussein?s Ba?athist Party.? In 1975, the government in Baghdad initiated a process of ?Arabization? in northern Iraq, methodically exterminating the Kurdish population there.[iv] In 1988, the Anfal military campaign, led... ... Over Kurds. APS Diplomat Recorder.? 4 October 2003. [xxxv]? Purvis, Andrew.? ?Gathering Forces with Turkey. Time.? 10 February 2003: 23. [xxxvi]? ?Turkey?s Role Worries Kurds. The San Diego Union-Tribune.? 21 October 2003:? B2. [xxxvii]? ?The Battle for Northern Iraq. The Economist.? 22 March 2003. [xxxviii]? ?Turkey Moves Into Northern Iraq. APS Diplomat News Service.? 31 March 2003. [xxxix]? Ibid. [xl]? Gorvett, Jon.? ?Staking a Claim. The Middle East.? May 2003. [xli]? ?No Kurdish Imperialism for Us. The Economist.? 30 August 2003: 33. [xlii]? ?Kurds Block Turkish Mission. APS Diplomat Recorder.? 9 August 2003. [xliii]? Berenson, Alex.? ?The Struggle for Iraq. The New York Times.? 15 October 2003. [xliv]? Howard, Michael.? ?Kurds Say Turkish Troops Will Bring Chaos. The Observer.? 16 October 2003: 5. [xlv]?

J.M. Coetzees In the Heart of the Country Essay -- Coetzee Heart Coun

J.M. Coetzee's In the Heart of the Country In the novel In the Heart of the Country, by J.M. Coetzee, the main protagonist Magda lived isolated from almost any human interaction. Due to this isolation from everything outside ‘the country’ in which she resided, combined with her inherent introvertedness and father’s callousness, her view of life was slanted according to the rare exchanges she did muster. As she was prone to bouts of incoherent thoughts and depression, any positive conversation between her and her father, Hendrik, or Klein-Anna served to maintain her sanity. An impolite few words intensified her feelings of seclusion. Likewise a neutral chat ignited optimistic plans for her life, and a favorable stance on ‘the country’. Therefore, Magda based her fluctuating attitude toward ‘the country’ (her life) on the quality of the communications with the three people she knew: her father, Hendrik, and Klein-Anna. The way in which her father regarded her had the greatest influence on her ensuing moods. For example, after trying to help him up onto the bed, begging him to respond and acknowledge her presence, he says only, â€Å"‘Water’†(67). Taking this as a declaration of her worthlessness, she became convinced that she â€Å"[was] an idea [her] father had many years ago and then, bored with it, forgot†(69) about. Locked in self-pity after his reply, she continued questioning the point of her being, feeling insignificant and wanting to â€Å"annihilate [herself]†(71). In fact, that he does not seem to notice her is also a contributing part of her disposition: after taking to bed with a migraine she comments, â€Å"I was not missed. My father pays no attention to my absence† (2). Her resentment of him grew to be so automatic that it envel... ...istress into fits of despair. Magda’s perception of ‘the country’, which was the only home and consistent companion ever known to her, varied depending upon the interactions with the only humanity she came into contact with: her father, the servant Hendrik, and his wife Klein-Anna. Each relationship affected her perception differently, and her moods were constantly volatile. Through this learned dependency on the minimal human contact she experienced, Coetzee suggests that validating one’s life based upon the actions of others is a risky and foolish lifestyle. Magda’s incessant, acidic thoughts ate at her soul until she valued herself at nothing, not unless someone was paying her attention. In the Heart serves as a warning against diminishing one’s own worth for petty and often fleeting, emotions, and lackluster validation from those with ulterior motivations.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Analysis of Hamlet Act II.2 Essay

Act 2, Scene 2 is an important scene for the audience’s impressions of Hamlet, as it is the first time we can see the â€Å"antic disposition† of which he has previously spoken. He enters the scene on page 50, and immediately enters into conversation with Polonius. We can see that the act of his madness relies upon rhetoric devices such as puns and double meanings, which are deliberately intended to confuse. On page 51, for example, when Polonius asks him what matter he reads, he replies: HAMLET: Between who? In this, Hamlet is playing on the double meaning of the word â€Å"matter†- although Polonius intends it to mean his reading matter, Hamlet knows it could also mean personal matters, and picks the wrong interpretation, intending Polonius to think that his mental instability is such that he cannot follow the conversation. Although there are these occasions upon which Hamlet seems to be truly mad, the audience can see that he is being rather clever in constructing his act. When Polonius clarifies the meaning of the word â€Å"matter† which he intended, Hamlet responds with a thinly veiled attack on him: HAMLET: The satirical rogue says here that old men have grey beards, (†¦ ) and that they have a plentiful lack of wit. Here, Hamlet pretends to discuss the â€Å"slanders† of which he reads, but the audience can see that he is commenting on Polonius as an old man. By mentioning the â€Å"plentiful lack of wit†, he recognises how obvious Polonius’ motives are in conversing with him, and attacking his methods. Although Polonius does not pick up on this, he does see that there is more to the â€Å"madness† of Hamlet than is seen, commenting â€Å"there is method in’t. † While Hamlet’s act here seems rather convincing, as soon as Rosencrantz and Guildenstern enter his madness begins to slip. His conversation with the two is coherent, as he directly questions them to see how honest they are. For example, on pages 53-54: HAMLET:Were you not sent for? Is it your own inclining? Is it a free visitation? This short, direct questioning shows his cynicism of the two- he knows that they did not come of their own free will, and is simply testing them to prove their honesty. When they are hesitant to answer, he decides they have not passed his test, and afterwards treats them with a contempt or disregard. This wariness in his personality will become important later in the scene when he contrives a means of testing Claudius. Furthermore, the coherency with which he asks these questions show the sanity underlying his act of madness. Hamlet himself recognises this, when on page 57 he comments â€Å"I am but mad north-north-west. â€Å", implying that although there are times when he acts with seeming insanity, he is also capable of coherent conversation. This also emphasises to the audience that what they see is simply an act, and underneath the madness there is a young man obsessed with avenging the death of his father. Although his mood during this first part of the conversation is that of anger and mistrust towards his two friends, there is an abrupt change in his speech and actions when the players are mentioned to him. In fact, his speech becomes uplifted and he appears to be genuinely excited about the upcoming play. For example, on page 55: HAMLET: He that plays the king shall be welcome- his majesty shall have tribute of me. This is rather ironic- while he shall welcome the actor who plays the king, in reality it is a king who is the source of all his problems. This shows Hamlet’s love for actors in that while very few people in his life are trustworthy and it is hard to distinguish their actions from the meanings behind them, one can be certain that the actors will be acting. After this, he then goes on to list the many characters who appear in a play, explaining what they shall do and how he shall enjoy it- â€Å"the lover shall not sigh gratis†. This also shows that he is knowledgable on the matter of the theatre, as he is acquainted with the many parts which are played. It also shows his excitement, as he speaks more a long time on the matter. His speech is not organised into short, direct questioning as before, but instead he speaks in longer, freer sentences. This change in syntax clearly shows his mood- whereas before his short sentences showed doubt and mistrustfulness, these longer sentences show that he is what he is saying is exactly what he thinks- in contrast to the earlier part of the conversation, he now clearly seems to be relishing and enjoying the words as he says them. This is the first time that the audience is made aware of Hamlet’s love of drama, which is an important part of his personality and will become vital later on in the scene, when the audience is made aware of his plans. It also explains how, when faced with the dilemma of how he should react to the news of the ghost, his immediate reaction is to put on an act. At the end of the scene, Hamlet is left alone and speaks his second soliloquy of the play. As is typical of Shakespearean dramas, soliloquies are used to give the audience an insight into the character’s innermost thoughts and feelings without worrying about the opinions and reactions of other characters towards them. The speech is organised into three main parts: the first, a comment on the player he has just seen perform, followed by a self-critical analysis, before he goes on to explain his plan of action. He begins by speaking about the player, who has put such great emotion into his performances that he weeps during them. Hamlet contrasts this with the state of emotional turmoil in which he resides, although he is not allowed to show it externally. During the soloiloquy, Shakepeare uses several rhetoric devices to communicate this distress to the audience- for example, the frequent use of exclamation marks, which suggest a passion behind his speech. By line 568, he uses a great deal of rhetorical questions: HAMLET: Am I a coward? Who calls me villain? Breaks my pate across? These questions serve to increase his anger, and as he says them his speech becomes increasingly passionate. At this point, he is talking about himself- by saying â€Å"Who calls me villain? † he is opening up to criticism from others, but then swiftly moves on to speak about himself. HAMLET: But I am pigeon-livered and lack gall During this section of the soliloquy, Hamlet reveals his attitude to the revenge which he has sworn to take. He shows the audience his conflicting feelings- on one hand, we can see that he feels he is cowardly for not having acted sooner. This shows a contrast between what he feels he should be and what he actually is, which is further reinforced when he explains â€Å"ere this/I should ha’ fatted all the region kites/ With this slave’s offal. † This shows that he feels that he should have taken revenge by now in order to remain true to his dead father, and yet he is reluctant to act too quickly. To add to this feeling, he has just ben watching the players speak of Pyrrhus, who was a man of revenge and action- what Hamlet feels he should be. He is also clearly filled with loathing towards his uncle- at one point referring to him as: HAMLET: Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless villain! This list of negative adjectives very clearly show the audience how passionate he is upon this issue. By this point, his extreme hatred of Claudius is obvious, and by describing him in this way Hamlet is only working himself into greater fits of passion and determination to act upon the situation. However, Hamlet is not, like his father, a man of war and fighting, but instead rather more cunning in his revenge- in this respect, he could almost be described as like Claudius. He realises that passion is not the way to solve his problems, saying on page 63: HAMLET: About, my brains. This signifies a change in his thoughts- whereas before he was speaking with passion and anger, he has now regained some control over his emotions and can speak with a greater coherency. It shows his belief that, in order to exact his vengance most effectively, he will need to remain calm and collected while thinking about it. As revenge is clearly the most urgent matter on his mind at this tiime, then, there is a need for him to think carefully, and by saying â€Å"About, my brains. † he is recognising this. It is at this point in the scene that the cynical facet of Hamlet’s personality comes back into importance- we can see that he needs evidence before he acts, as he declares towards the end of page 63: HAMLET: I’ll have grounds more relative than this. To the audience, this is further reinforcement of his suspicious nature- rather than simply take revenge without thought, he must first devise a plan to test the truth of the ghost’s words. This in in keeping with what we have been told of his past- namely, that he is a scholar from Wittenberg, which at the time was one of the most prestigious universities in Europe. Therefore, his questioning nature is in keeping with this- for, being educated, he is less likely simply to accept what others tell him wthout proof. We see this during his â€Å"testing† of the motives of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern earlier on in the scene, but only now does it begin to relate directly to the central plot. This concludes Act 2:2, during which Hamlet as a character has greatly developed. We see his plans begin to come together, as he feigns the â€Å"antic disposition† which was spoken of in previous scenes. The audience also begins to see his character develop, as we are introduced to such elements of his personality as his love for drama and his cynicism, all of which fashion the style which revenge will take, and ultimately guide the play to its inevitable ending.