Thursday, January 23, 2020
Sociological Theory: Positivistic, Interpretative, and Critical Comment on the three types of sociological theories, explain and argue, based on your library or Internet research, which type of theory is the most appropriate theory for sociology to adopt. The three general types of sociological theory are positivistic, interpretive and critical theory.In determining which theory is the most appropriate for sociology to adopt,a basic understanding of each theory's strengths and weaknesses is necessary.In defining each of these theories, it is important to determine the ontological basis orthe theory's basis for determining what is knowable; the epistemological basis or the theory's relationship between the knower and the knowable; and, finally, the methodological basis or the theory's method for gathering data and obtaining knowledge. A.POSITIVISTIC 1.Ontology. The positivistic theory is based on an ontology ofbeing a realist.The realistic slant of positivism is also known as determinism.The positivist knows that a reality is "out there" to be defined and categorized.The hard sciences from the time of Newton and Decartes have traditionally relied on the positivistic approach.The positivist hopes to be able to approximate "reality" in a detailed generalization or theory on how reality operates.The theories of a positivist generallytake the form of cause and effect laws describing the outside reality.Robert Merton defined these theorems as "clear verifiable statements of the relationships between specified variables." 2.Epistemology. Positivism relies onan objective epistemology.The observer remains distant and does not interact with the observation or experiment.Values and any other factors that might lead to bias are to be carefully removed so that the cold, monological gaze of science can be used to analyze the data.The positivist is an objectivist. 3.Methodology. The methodology of positivism is experimental and manipulative. The approach is the same as propounded in most junior high science classes:begin with a hypothesis on how "reality" works, then gather data and test the data against the hypothesis.The question propounded initially is tested against empirical data gathered in the experiment under carefully controlled conditions. B.INTERPRETIVE 1.Ontology. The interpretivist ontology is relativism.The... ...late objectivity. This is not the same as objectivism.Each has its own "norms for proceeding with a particular form of inquiry in a rational manner."However, because of the orientation of each theory, the end results will vary. Based upon these difference, critical theory does not seem to be a theory that should be adopted by sociologists.It belongs more in the realm of politics and legislation.Critical theory in that context could take advantage of scientific inquiry by both positivistic and interpretive sociologists to make determinations about social change.If indeed critical theorist are to be involved in sociological study, full disclosure of prejudices and objectives would be needed for any inquiry to be beneficial and trustworthy. Postpositivism remains the best approach for observing the exteriors of society.Coupled with the interpretivist's view of the interior culture, the two theories working hand in hand would be most beneficial for the sociologist in examining society.Utilizing a dual approach would be the most comprehensive and give the scientific inquiry both depth and span in evaluating our societies and creating a useable body of sociological research.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Legal Studies In December 2002 Dominic Li answered his front door to two men (Richard Nimmo and Maua Sua) both armed with guns. Sua and Nimmo were being paid by Yonky Irvin Tan, a drug dealer whom LiÃ¢â¬â¢s brother in law owed money to. Both Sua and Nimmo poured hydrochloric acid onto Mr Li where he suffered burns to his face, became blind and burns to his oesophagus. Mr Li painfully passed away three weeks later due to these injuries sustained as they led to a blockage in his throat that blocked his breathing. Tan was found guilty of plannng the murder and sentenced to life in prison.Sua and Nimmo were found not guilty to the murder but found guilty on other offences. Identify the correct legal citation of the case Name: Dominic Li Ã¢â¬â Satorre v R, R v AB, R v Tan Ã¢â¬â Acid attack and murder Date: 13th December 2002 Outline the elements of the offence In this case the elements of this case include the planning of the event by Tan. This is known as the menÃ¢â¬â¢s rea (gu ilty mind) this is proven by Tan admitting he had planned out the act and paid Sua and Nimmo to kill Li for him. Also acts rea is established in this case.Acts rea is the guilty act and is revealed in the case by Sua and Nimmo pouring the acid on LiÃ¢â¬â¢s face which eventually led to Li passing away three weeks later due to the injuries suffered in the attack. The overall offence of this act was murder. Describe the factors that might have led to the criminal behaviour. Economics was the factor/motive for this murder. LiÃ¢â¬â¢s brother in law (Phillip Ma) owed Tan money and had disappeared. Tan then planned out the murder of Li as a way of finding out where Ma was and to portray to Ma that it was a sign that Tan was coming after him.Outline the reporting and investigation of the crime Mr LiÃ¢â¬â¢s murder was reported to the police by his wife who looked on in horror as her husband had the acid poured down his throat and on his face at gunpoint. The evidence that was discovere d at the crime scene was the DNA of Sua and Nimmo (Fingerprints on guns and acid bottle). Explain the role of the courts The role of the courts is to hear cases being put forward by the two parties and decide the outcome of the hearing. In this case the case was heard at the NSW Supreme Court.It was heard in Supreme Court as the offence committed was too severe for the local courts as it was a murder case. Outline the legal representation The legal representation in this case is the roles of both the crown and the prosecutor. The role of the crown in cases is to act as the prosecuting party against the defendant. The Crown is usually abbreviated or represented by R. e. g. R v Smith. The role of the prosecutor is to assist the court in that the truth of the offence has been arrived and achieved. Identify the PleaIn the case of Dominic LiÃ¢â¬â¢s murder the offenders involved in the crime Tan, Sua, Nimmo and Sattore all pleaded innocent but were found guilty on various offences. Firs tly Tan was found guilty of planning the murder and was sentenced to life in prison. Secondly Sua and Nimmo were found guilty but were acquitted because one of TanÃ¢â¬â¢s associates that was involved in proving Sua and NimmoÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt and been in prison on previous occasions was seen as unreliable. However, both Sua and Nimmo were found guilty of drug offences and both prisoned to 24 years prison.Finally Sattore, who was found guilty of driving Sua and Nimmo to LiÃ¢â¬â¢s house was charged with being an accessory to the crime as he admitted to having prior knowledge of the planned murder and was sentenced to 16 years in prison. After the sentences were handed down Sattore expressed his sympathy and sorrow towards the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s friends and family. Discuss the factors that affect the sentencing decision Factors that affect sentencing decisions are conditions that may influence the final outcome and affect the result e. g. educe or increase the punishment handed down. The se conditions are considered by the court when determining whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. Some conditions may reduce the severity of the charge. These conditions are known as mitigating offences. In addition, conditions that may result in the charge becoming more severe are known as aggravating offences. In Mr LiÃ¢â¬â¢s case the mitigating offence shown was that of Mr TanÃ¢â¬â¢s associates being labelled as unreliable therefore leading to the murder charges on Sua and Nimmo being dropped.Explain the penalty given Penalties given to the defendant may include time in prison. The judge determines the time that the defendant has to serve in prison based on the severity of the case that is being heard. In the case of Mr LiÃ¢â¬â¢s murder the judge handed down the sentence of life in prison to Mr Tan, 24 years in prison to both Sua and Nimmo and 16 years imprisonment to Sattore. Analyse the extent to which the law balances the rights of victims and offenders.In cases pr esented in court, the courts have to ensure the both the rights of the victims and the offenders are upheld. These rights must be met without any bias or unfairness towards one party. In the case of Mr Dominic LiÃ¢â¬â¢s death, his family and Mr Li himself have had their rights maintained as they know that the people responsible for Mr LiÃ¢â¬â¢s death are serving a long time in prison for what they did. On the other hand the rights of the offenders have also been upheld. Justice has been served to Tan, Sua, Nimmo and Sattore.This has been done by Sua and Nimmo being acquitted because of an unreliable source being used as a witness and providing an unstable statement. However, the rights of LiÃ¢â¬â¢s family were once again maintained as both Sua and Nimmo were still charged for other offences and face lengthy prison sentences. Furthermore , Sattore has been dealt justice as he is still serving time for his part in the murder but hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been given as severe punishment as t he other member because he did not actually take part in the killing he just drove the murderers to LiÃ¢â¬â¢s house.He also admits to feeling extremely sorry for his actions and all of the offenders must live with the guilt of murdering Mr Dominic Li for the rest of their lives. In conclusion, the rights of both the victims and offenders have been upheld throughout the case by the final outcome. The family of Mr Li can get a sense of security and satisfactory out of knowing that the people who killed their beloved family member are serving time behind bars. Finally, the rights of the offenders were maintained because each member was given a fair trial and received a reduce punishment except for Mr Tan. Bryce Donovan
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Ramses II (ca 1303 BC Ã¢â¬â 1213 BC) was one of the most powerful and influential Egyptian pharaohs in history. He led expeditions and focused on building up the New Kingdom, and most likely reigned longer than any other pharaoh. Fast Facts: Ramses II Full Name:Ã Ramses II (alternative spelling Ramesses II)Also Known As: UsermaatreÃ SetepenreOccupation: Pharaoh of ancient EgyptBorn: circa 1303 BCDied: 1213 BCKnown For: The longest-reigning pharaoh in history, Ramses IIs reign defined the New Kingdom era of Egypt as one of conquest, expansion, building, and culture.Prominent Spouses: Nefertari (died circa 1255 BC), IsetnofretChildren: Amun-her-khepsef, Ramses, Meritamen, Bintanath, Pareherwenemef, Merneptah (future Pharaoh), and others Early Life and Reign Little is known about RamsesÃ¢â¬â¢ early life. His exact year of birth is not confirmed but is widely believed to be 1303 BC. His father was Seti I, the second pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty, founded by Ramses I, the grandfather of Ramses II. Most likely, Ramses II came to the throne in 1279 BC, when he was approximately 24 years old. At some point prior to this, he married his future queen consort, Nefertari. Over the course of their marriage, they had at least four sons and two daughters, and possibly more, although historians have uncertain evidence of children beyond the six who are clearly mentioned in documents and on carvings. A statue of Ramses II stands in the Temple of Karnak in Luxor, Egypt. David Callan / Getty Images In the first few years of his reign, Ramses foreshadowed his later power with battles against sea pirates and the beginning of major building projects. His earliest known major victory came in the second year of his reign, probably 1277 BC, when he defeated the Sherden pirates. The Sherden, who most likely originated from Ionia or Sardinia, were a fleet of pirates who kept attacking cargo ships en route to Egypt, damaging or outright crippling Egyptian sea trade. Ramses also began his major building projects within the first three years of his reign. On his orders, the ancient temples in Thebes were completely renovated, specifically to honor Ramses and his power, revered as nearly divine. The stone carving methods used by past pharaohs resulted in shallow carvings which could easily be remade by their successors. In place of this, Ramses ordered much deeper carvings that would be harder to undo or alter in the future. Military Campaigns By the fourth year of his reign, approximately 1275 BC, Ramses was making major military moves to regain and expand EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s territory. He began with war against the nearby Canaan, the region to the northeast of Egypt where the countries of the Middle East such as Israel now are located. One story from this era involves Ramses personally fighting a wounded Canaanite prince and, upon victory, taking the Canaanite prince to Egypt as prisoners. His military campaigns extended into areas previously held by the Hittites and, eventually, Syria. Wall carvings of Ramsess army defeating the Hittites. Ã skaman306 / Getty Images The Syrian campaign was one of the key points of RamsesÃ¢â¬â¢ early reign. Around 1274 BC, Ramses fought in Syria against the Hittites with two goals in mind: expanding EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s borders, and replicating his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s triumph at Kadesh about ten years earlier. Although Egyptian forces were outnumbered, he was able to counterattack and force the Hittites back into the city. However, Ramses realized his army wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t able to sustain the kind of siege required to take down the city, so he returned to Egypt, where he was building a new capital city, Pi-Ramesses. A few years later, however, Ramses was able to return to Hittite-held Syria and eventually pushed further north than any pharaoh in over a century. Unfortunately, his northern victories did not last long, and a small bit of land kept going back and forth between Egyptian and Hittite control. In addition to his campaigns in Syria against the Hittites, Ramses led military attempts in other regions. He spent some time, alongside his sons, on military action in Nubia, which had been conquered and colonized by Egypt a few centuries prior but continued to be a thorn in its side. In a surprising turn of events, Egypt actually became a place of refuge for a deposed Hittite king, Mursili III. When his uncle, the new king Ã¡ ¸ ªattuÃ ¡ili III demanded MursiliÃ¢â¬â¢s extradition, Ramses denied all knowledge of MursiliÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in Egypt. As a result, the two countries remained on the brink of war for several years. In 1258 BC, however, they chose to formally end the conflict, resulting in one of the earliest known peace treaties in human history (and the oldest with surviving documentation). In addition, Nefertari kept up a correspondence with Queen Puduhepa, Ã¡ ¸ ªattuÃ ¡iliÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. Buildings and Monuments Even more than his military expeditions, the reign of Ramses was defined by his obsession with building. His new capital city, Pi-Ramesses, featured multiple huge temples and a sprawling palatial complex. Over the course of his reign, he did more building than any of his predecessors. Aside from the new capital city, RamsesÃ¢â¬â¢ most enduring legacy was an enormous temple complex, dubbed the Ramesseum by the Egyptologist Jean-FranÃ §ois Champollion in 1829. It included large courtyards, enormous statues of Ramses, and scenes representing his armyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest victories and Ramses himself in the company of several deities. Today, 39 of the 48 original columns are still standing, but much of the rest of the temple and its statues have long since disappeared. The Great Temple at Abu Simbel is generally considered the greatest of the temples built during the reign of Ramses II. Tom Schwabel / Getty Images When Nefertari died, approximately 24 years into RamsesÃ¢â¬â¢ reign, she was buried in a tomb fit for a queen. The wall paintings inside the structure, depicting the heavens, the deities, and NefertariÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation to the gods, are considered some of the most exquisite achievements in art in ancient Egypt. Nefertari was not RamsesÃ¢â¬â¢ only wife, but she was honored as the most important. Her son, the crown prince Amun-her-khepeshef, died a year later. Later Reign and Popular Legacy After reigning for 30 years, Ramses II celebrated the traditional jubilee held for the longest-ruling pharaohs, called a Sed festival. By this point in his reign, Ramses had already achieved most of the accomplishments he would be known for: expanding and maintaining the kingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s territory, improving the infrastructure, and building new monuments. Sed festivals were held every three (or, sometimes, two) years after the first one; Ramses ended up celebrating 13 or 14 of them, more than any other pharaoh before him. After reigning for 66 years, RamsesÃ¢â¬â¢ health deteriorated, as he suffered from arthritis and problems with his arteries and teeth. He died at the age of 90 and was succeeded by his son (the oldest son to outlive Ramses), Merneptah. He was first buried in the Valley of the Kings, but his body was moved to deter looters. In the 20th century, his mummy was taken to France for examination (which revealed that the pharaoh was most likely a fair-skinned redhead) and preservation. Today, it resides at the Museum of Cairo. One of the statues of Ramses II at the Temple of Luxor in Egypt. inigoarzaÃ / Getty Images Ramses II was called the Ã¢â¬Å"Great AncestorÃ¢â¬ by his own civilization, and several subsequent pharaohs took the regnal name Ramses in his honor. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s often depicted in popular culture, and is one of the candidates for the pharaoh described in the Book of Exodus, although historians have never been able to determine conclusively who that pharaoh was. Ramses remains one of the best-known pharaohs and one who exemplifies what we know of the ancient Egyptian rulers. Sources Clayton, Peter. Chronology of the Pharaohs. London: Thames Hudson, 1994.Kitchen, Kenneth. Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. London: Aris Phillips, 1983.Rattini, Kristin Baird. Ã¢â¬Å"Who Was Ramses II?Ã¢â¬ National Geographic, 13 May 2019, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/people/reference/ramses-ii/.