Thursday, November 28, 2019
Future of technology (advantages and disadvantages) BY alona007 From day to day, our world has been changed gradually from one condition to another. Nowadays, technology has advanced in huge leaps and bounds. We cannot imagine the world without technological advances such as computer, televisions, and machines and so on. However there are some advantages and disadvantages of technology. First, technologies play an important role in society because it makes life easier to live on and makes time less consuming. People do not have to do all the ard labor anymore. For example, many people have washing machines, clothes driers and dishwashers, so the amount of energy needed to wash and dry clothes and wash dishes is greatly reduced. Second, medical science is very progressive and saves many innocent lives. Medical treatment has been going well with the help of technology. Nowadays, hospitals use technology as assistance for operations. However, technology also brings harm to our society. We will write a custom essay sample on Future of technology or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The overuse and development of factory industries causes pollution to our world. For example the use of cars and achines causes smoke that affects the quality of our air and destroys our ozone layer and as a result people suffer illnesses like cancer. Another disadvantage is that technologies create financial problems in families because most technologies are expensive. For example people that do not have a washing machine will have to wash clothes by hand which is time consuming. In conclusion, we cannot stop technology from developing in our society. Nowadays, we as people rely on technology everyday to make our lives simpler. Without modern technology our world would be a tough place to live in.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Average AP Scores for Every AP Exam SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Taking an AP class this year? You might be wondering about average AP scores or what good AP scores are for certain classes. Or if you are thinking about taking AP exams in the future, you might want to know which exams have the highest passing rates. In this post, we will break down the average score for each AP test, as well as the average passing rate. We will also show you how to interpret this info and how to use it to make decisions about your schedule. Average AP Score by Test Instead of giving you an overall average score for all AP tests, we will show you the average score for every AP exam. We break it down by test because every AP test is different. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to know the average score for whichever test you are taking or thinking about taking. We will also explore how you can use this info- and learn why the exams with the highest passing rates are not the easiest! But first, the data. The table contains the national average scores for each AP exam from 2018. Remember that AP exams are scored from 1 to 5, with 3 and higher considered passing rates. We have sorted the exams from highest average scoreto lowest. Take a look: AP Test Average Score Chinese Language 4.31 Calculus BC 3.74 Japanese Language 3.70 Spanish Language 3.69 Studio Art Drawing 3.65 Physics C EM 3.60 Physics C Mechanics 3.55 Studio Art 2-D Design 3.48 Spanish Language (Standard) 3.45 French Language 3.32 German Language 3.31 Economics - Micro 3.21 Computer Science A 3.18 Music Theory 3.18 Research 3.17 French Language (Standard) 3.16 Seminar 3.15 Italian Language 3.14 Psychology 3.14 Gov. and Politics - Comparative 3.12 Computer Science Principles 3. Studio Art 3-D Design 3. Chinese Language (Standard) 3.06 Spanish Literature 3.06 Calculus AB 3.05 Art History 3.04 Physics 2 2.97 German Language (Standard) 2.96 Economics - Macro 2.96 Latin 2.94 Japanese Language (Standard) 2.89 European History 2.89 Italian Language (Standard) 2.88 Statistics 2.88 Biology 2.87 English Language 2.83 Chemistry 2.80 World History 2.78 Human Geography 2.72 Gov. and Politics - US 2.70 United States History 2.66 Environmental Science 2.63 English Literature 2.57 Physics 1 2.36 Via College Board. Check out the link for a complete distribution of scores for each AP exam. Want to get a perfect 5 on your AP exam and an A in class? We can help. PrepScholar Tutors is the world's best tutoring service. We combine world-class expert tutors with our proprietary teaching techniques. Our students have gotten A's on thousands of classes, perfect 5's on AP tests, and ludicrously high SAT Subject Test scores. Whether you need help with science, math, English, social science, or more, we've got you covered. Get better grades today with PrepScholar Tutors. One very important fact to note is that high average scores don't correspond to the easiest exams! Chinese, Calculus BC, Japanese, and Spanish Language are the AP tests with the highest average scores, but they are all known to be quite difficult. Also note that native speakers, or students with experience living abroad, tend to take the AP language exams, which inflates their average scores (for the average of those who learned in a classroom, check the "Standard" score). Furthermore, some of the tests with the lowest averages are often regarded as some the easiest APs- Human Geography, Environmental Science, and US Government. So why are their passing rates so low? This is because freshmen and sophomores might take these as their first-ever AP classes. Even though the content is easier than, say, Calculus, all AP exams are tough and could be hard for a younger student to do well on. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also possible that students simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t study enough for the Ã¢â¬Å"easierÃ¢â¬ exams because they underestimate them. All AP tests are difficult, even if some are easier than others. To sum up, the average score can say more about the students taking the exam than the exam itself. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t sign up for BC Calculus just because the average score is super high. And by the same token, donÃ¢â¬â¢t avoid AP Environmental Science because the average score is relatively low. Focus on your own strengths and interests when signing up for AP classes! What's a Good AP Score? Beyond the basic averages, itÃ¢â¬â¢s helpful to have some context about what a "good" AP score is. A score of 3 or higher is generally considered good, because that means you passed the exam! A 4 is considered very good, and a 5 is especially impressive since it is the highest score. Also keep in mind that every college sets its own policy about AP credit. Some schools only give credit for scores of 4 or 5. Check the AP credit database to find out the AP credit policy for schools you're interested in. But with that in mind, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at which 2019 AP exams have the highest passing rates- a.k.a. rates of scores over 3. We also note the percentage of students who get a 5, the highest score. Exam Name Passing Rate (3+) 5 Rate Studio Art: Drawing 91.1% 20.8% Spanish Language and Culture 89% 24.9% Chinese Language and Culture 88.3% 57.2% Studio Art: 2-D Design 86.4% 21% Calculus BC 81.5% 43.2% Physics C: Electricity Magnetism 81.1% 35.9% Seminar 80.7% 6.8% French Language and Culture 76.7% 15.5% Research 76.2% 10.8% Japanese Language and Culture 75% 38.2% Computer Science Principles 72.7% 13.6% Spanish Literature 71.9% 9.1% Physics C: Mechanics 71.1% 34.6% German Language and Culture 70.5% 18.4% Studio Art: 3-D Design 70.1% 10.1% Computer Science A 69.9% 27% Microeconomics 68.4% 22.2% Gov. and Politics - Comparative 66.2% 22.2% Biology 64.6% 7.1% Italian Language and Culture 64.6% .8% Psychology 64.4% 20.2% Art History 63.9% 12% Physics 2 63.5% 12.6% Music Theory 63.4% 20.9% Latin 63.1% 13.1% Statistics 59.2% 14.5% European History 58.4% .7% Calculus AB 58.3% 18.9% Macroeconomics 57.9% 17.6% World History 56% 8.7% Gov. and Politics - United States 55.2% 12.9% English Language and Composition 55.1% 10.1% Chemistry 54.6% 10.7% United States History 54.3% 12.1% English Literature and Composition 50.1% 6.2% Environmental Science 49.6% 9.5% Human Geography 49.1% 10.7% Physics 1 44.6% 6.2% Source: College Board. For language rates, "Total" includes all students, while "Standard" includes only those students who didn't indicate they speak this language at home or spent more than four weeks studying it abroad. Again, note that some of the toughest exams- like Chinese and BC Calculus- have very high passing rates. Notice also the exams with very low 5 rates (below 10%), including Physics 1, English Literature, and Environmental Science. It will look especially impressive if you can earn a 5 on these tests! So Which AP Classes Should You Take? The goal of taking an AP class is to get a good grade in it and also pass the AP test. Doing both these things will show colleges that you can handle college-level material, and scoring high enough on the AP test can help you get college credit. You want to take AP classes you think you'll do well in. However, be careful about signing up for exams based on their average scores alone. As we saw above, some of the toughest exams (like Physics, AB and BC Calculus, and many of the foreign languages) have the highest passing rates, and some of the easiest exams (like Environmental Science and Human Geography) have the lowest passing rates. This means you shouldn't sign up for AP classes based on just their passing rates. Do some research before signing up for an AP class and make sure itÃ¢â¬â¢s the right fit for you. Ask older classmates how difficult they've found certain AP classes. Also, think about your own academic strengths and the classes you enjoy the most. If you love math and have always been good at it, you can probably score well on an AP Calculus exam even though they're known for being difficult. Also be careful not to overload yourself! If you cram too many AP classes into your schedule, it will be harder to pass the exams. Finally, note that these are the national averages. The passing rates for different subjects could be very different at your school. If you want to find out the passing rates for these classes at your school, talk to your guidance counselor and they can help you find that info. For example, some teachers have passing rates for their AP classes above 90%. If you have a teacher like that at your school, and they teach an AP subject you are interested in, you will likely have a very high chance of passing. One last word of advice: check out our scoring guide to see how AP scores are calculated to help you develop a target raw score to help you pass. Understanding how the exam is scored is a very important step in preparing for AP tests. What's Next? Learn about what AP Exams are like and how to avoid fatigue. Check out our guide on AP test length for exclusive tips! Want help deciding which AP classes will be easiest for you to take? We will show you which factors to consider to find the easiest AP classes for your schedule. Trying to decide between the ACT and SAT? Read our guide to decide which is best for you- and learn why itÃ¢â¬â¢s best to just focus on one test. Get tips on the SAT from our 1600 Full Scorer- you can also put the same techniques to use when studying for AP exams, especially the multiple choice sections! Get advice on writing SAT and ACT essays. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re going for perfection, you can even learn how to write a perfect SAT essay or a perfect ACT essay. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Marketing strategy - Essay Example When organizations pay emphasis and use its resources towards a small part of the consumers, they are involved in the business of market niche and by serving this portion of the market; businesses can perform better and gain an added advantage over their competitors. The process of market segmentation lies between an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy that targets a huge market by producing goods and services that satisfy the needs and wants of a huge market or the overall market and a marketing strategy that is used to serve the needs and wants of individual consumers by producing goods and services that are unique and only appeal to a specific portion of the overall market. Those organizations and marketers who follow niche marketing strategy and work on their market segmentation practices are of the belief that one product does not has the ability to satisfy a huge market as consumers have different needs and wants. Secondly, they are even aware that an organization can neve r have enough resources to satisfy needs and wants of consumers on the individual level. This is why marketers are involved in the process of marketing segmentation and they divide a huge market into smaller segments and then the marketers create marketing strategy as well as products that satisfy the needs and wants of a particular segment. Market segments are created while giving importance to the characteristics of consumers, these characteristics are regarded as segmentation bases and can be utilized to create segments of a market, and the most commonly used segmentation bases include: consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s age, the place they live in, their income levels and the purchasing behaviors (STEVENS, 2012, p.32). There are several strategies of marketing that a marketer can use for his/her product, one such strategy is recognized as marketing at the mass level, and this is even recognized by the name of undifferentiated marketing (FERRELL, 2011, p.168). Such a marketing strategy
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Taiwan or hong kong (asian) rituals - Essay Example It has to be believed that the concrete religious practices, such as community festivals, calendrical festivals, rites of cosmic renewals, and family oriented and individual religious rituals of Taiwan are culminated from the fusion of local and national traditions. Thus, it is an attempt at unraveling intricacies of rituals in the sphere of: (1) how does the ritual reflect the values of a community; (2) what are the underlying consequences of the ritual; (3) what is the stated purpose of the ritual; and (4) what behavior does this ritual make it seem natural or normal, in the socio-cultural Taiwanese perspective. Anthropologists and sociologists are interested in ritual studies, because discussions about rituals have key cultural importance and social concern. They take ritual events as Ã¢â¬Å"a mirror to reflect the larger problems of particular interests in an ethnographic case that become amenable to analystsÃ¢â¬ (Husken). Rituals are viewed to act as powerful mechanisms for constructions of the self and the other, of personal and collective identities, and are generally held to have benign effects. They bring core cultural values, ideology, knowledge and dramatic style to bear on real social relationships, problems and difficulties, often at key moments of transition or intensification. Social scientists view that ritual action is a conscious social mechanism of symbolic actions that reinforces the status quo by overwhelming the practitioner with a feeling of moral obligation to adhere to societal sentiments, which stress the importance of maintaining social structure.In short, ritual s are often at the centre of the play of social and cultural forces operating in a society. The cultural attributes of marriage, death, as well as religious practices are considered fundamental to the cultural make-up and identity of a country. Taiwan is a country where past, present and future
Monday, November 18, 2019
Human Resourse Management - Essay Example Every organization must ensure that they tell the employees what they are interested in hearing rather than focuses all their energy on telling things that would fall on deaf ears. Communication is undoubtedly a two way process and both the employer and employee must participate in this two way process in order to ensure that the growth of their organization takes place. There are several important communication options available these days ranging from Emails to Faxes to Phone calls and a host of other ways. Several methods of communication have become an integral part in almost all the organizations. The most common way of communication is oral communication; this is carried out by almost every organization in the form of meetings. Conducting meetings is a very integral part of management; usually these meetings throw light upon the position of an organization and the steps required in enhancing the current position of an organization. Meetings provide an ideal platform for the emp loyees to discuss their difficulties with the organization; this promotes the theory of two way conversion within the organization. Telephone calls is another important way of communicating with the employees, both these methods come under oral communication. Planning is a very important factor in communication. It is very important to plan before making a phone call to an employee, a list of points should be made ready in order to put across important messages assertively. Most organizations prefer written communication over oral communication because written communication provides a record and employees tend to act much faster on written communication than oral commutation. There are several ways of written communication; the most popular of them include letters, faxes, emails etc. Letters play an instrumental role in putting across a message assertively. Letters must always be kept short and to the point, they must communicate what is meant to be communicated no less, no more. Th e brevity of a letter is its real strength and the same is often noticed in many cases. Fax is another option should a company choose written communication over oral communication. The use of fax has dwindled over the period of time, most organizations prefer sending emails to their employees than sending them fax messages. Email has perhaps become the most popular form of written communication these days and it I one of the fastest methods of communication and this is exactly why most organizations depend on this very heavily. Group projects can easily be handled under autocratic leadership, the use of technology and communication becomes inevitable when it comes to group work and autocratic leadership ensures that all employees adhere to the rules and regulation and complete their respective tasks. A person with Autocratic leadership ability must take over should an organization decide to make their employees work in a group, the communication process is ought to become complicate d but an autocratic leader is expected to handle the same with minimum fuss. The strategic pay literature is predominantly controlled by two perspectives namely, the best fit and the best practice. The best fit perspective highlights the importance of competitive advantage by bringing in align the firmÃ¢â¬â¢
Friday, November 15, 2019
Crimes Of The Rich And Powerful Criminology Essay White collar offenders get away with their crimes easily and rich get richer poor get . It seems obvious that power inequality affects the quality of peoples lives. The rich and powerful live better than the poor and powerless. Power inequality affects the type of deviant activities likely to be engaged in (Barak 2000). The powerful are more likely to perpetrate profitable crimes such as corporate crime while the powerless people are more likely to commit unprofitable crimes such as homicide and assault and power can also be an importance cause of deviance. For example more likely for bank executives to cheat customers quietly than for jobless persons to rob banks violently. Crime committed by respectable people of high social status in the course of their work and this is called white collar crime (Sutherland 1961 ) white collar crime occurs at several levels. Embezzlement for example it is committed by employees against companies and companies also commit white collar crime too when they engage in pricing fixing, sell defective products, evade taxes pr pollute the environment. When companies are the perpetrators white collar crime is often referred to as corporate crime and sometimes corporate crime is more closely parallels organized crime than it does anything else. For example accountants ,auditors, and executives working for Enron corporation worked together to hide the companys debts exaggerate its profits and pull in money from investors whom they tricked into buying their stock for much more than it was worth (Coleman2002) White collar crime brings heavy costs to society most scholars and law enforcement officials believe that the money loss due to corporate crime dwarfs that lost through street crime in addition to the economic cost there are social costs as well white collar crime can cost lives when tainted medicines or dangerous cars are sold , safety precautions are flouted on factory lines or toxic chemicals are dumped by manufacturers into rivers and streams the cost of white collar crime go beyond the actual money involved in the crime itself. The reasons for white collar crime are similar to those for street crimes. People want more than they can legitimately get think the benefits of a crime outrun it is potential costs (Young 2009) In these days the magnitude of white collar crime in our society challenges the popular image of crime as a lower class phenomenon. Instead this appears that people of different status simly haqve different opportunities to commit crime. Those people in lower status are hardly in the position to engage in price fixing , stock manipulation and tax evation. They are in a position White collar crimes are far less likely to be offcialy investigated and prosecuted than converntional crimes. In the simplest term what occurs in the streets is more visible and more easily inveatigated than what occurs in the suite. Its hard to detect and it realy can be hard to notice if crime has accurred e.g fraud, tax fraud and shop theft there are also few good reasond that why business in UK and other companies dont want to talk about white-collar crime its because the firms may not want to admit that they have been victim of theft and this can effect on their own business they may also not want to admit that their staff committed a crime. Since crimes were attempts to gain personal advantage by force or fraud they could obviously be committed by the rich and powerful they could certainly involve force or fraud and they could clearly be committed without punishment by the state. Some doctors commit murder and doctors sometimes cheat on medicare and lawyers have been known to misuse funs entrusted to them by their clients: business executives sometimes angage in bid rigging : labor union executives sometimes embezzle funds from pension plans and also manufacturers sometimes dispose of toxic chemicals in wyas contrary to law. Other criminal activities that are often missed by official and many sociological measurements of crime are those conducted by the powerful in society (pearce, 1976) crimes of the powerful is largely those commited by rulling groups and governments, corporate crime is that crimes commited not so much by individuals but rather by boards for example chair persons and including the breaking of the Health and Safety Work Act and white collar crime that crimes committed by professional people such as tax evasion, business fraudand insider trading. White collar drimesis difficult to estimate the extent and influence of whitecollar crime on victims because all too often those who suffer the consequences of white collar crime are ignored by victimologists. Entry 2: Culture and crime Wide differences in cultural heritage and value system have a direct impact on rates of crime and it is obvious that there are many cultural differences between the America and Japan that doesnt mean that Japanese approaches to crime prevention cannot work in America (Freilich Guerette 2006). In Japan the societys emphasis on apologies and resolving disputes outside the police and the court this can effect on reporting crime, prevent crime and this leads to crime stays on low level in Japan. When we pick the robbery case is the most fearful street crime in America is much higher than Japan for example in 2002 America recorded 182 and for each robbery in Tokyo New York had 462. Robbery rates for England, Germany and France do not approach those in America but resident of those countries are still twenty to thirty times more likely to be held up than people living in Japan. Even when we think about South Korea have same similarity with geographically and culturally with Japans and closest neighbour and has robbery rates 6.5 times than Japan (Gilman Levy2005 ) culture plays important role in to control crime and prevent crime. There is also a lack of confidence in America and people likely to act as witness and they likely to report crime. While some people can effectively cope with strain some certain people have traits that may make them particularly sensitive to strain. These include an explosive temperament being overly sensitive or emotional low tolerance for adversity and poor problem solving skills. Aggressive people who have these traits are likely to have poor interpersonal skills and more likely to be treated negatively by others and their combative personalities make them feared and disliked. These people are likely to live in families whose caretakers share similar personality traits. They are also more likely to reject conventional peers and join deviant groups. In summer 2004 a dramatic murder trial took place in New York City that aptly illustrates how lower class cultural concerns the code of the streets clash with the rules and values of American culture and how deviant cultures can exist side by side with middle class culture. According to the studies the relatively high U.S. crime rates can be explained by the interrelationship between culture and institutions. The dominance of the American Dream mythology ensures that many people will develop wishes and desires for material goods that cannot be satisfied by legitimate means that people are willing to do anything to get ahead from cheating on tests to get higher grades to engaging in corporate fraud and tax evasion and those people who cannot succeed become willing to risk everything including a prison sentence(Valier 2004). American dream have a different effect on people depending on their place in the social structure. The studies shows that the American dream had a greater effect on whites than African Americans the reason is that whites may have greater expectations of material success than African Americans whose aspirations have been tempered by a long history of racial and economic deprivation. When whites experience strain they are more apt to react with anger and antisocial behaviour. At the institutional level the dominance of economic concerns weakens the informal social control exerted by the family, church and school. In my opinion these institutions have lost their ability to regulate behaviour and they have instead become a conduit for promoting material success. Parents pushing their kids to succeed at any cost and schools encourage the kids to get in to the best colleges by any means possible as well as religious institutions promote their wealth and power because religion lets you down all the time when you are keen on it too much. Entry 3: Race, ethnicity and crime I strongly not agree with the government recent policy change on immigrants. Te immigrants have faced the challenges involved in living in a new and different political and cultural environment. Many immigrants have faced discrimination in one form or another because of their colour and their inability to speak English fluently or their customs. After the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 reinforced the belief that he rights of immigrants should be limited and the government start passing a number of laws that could affect immigrants life in future emotionally and financially for example to apply for a passport you have to go through the citizenship and Naturalisation law stages in order to get your passport and it costs about Ã £800 per person age 18. Black people being the victims of crimes as well as the perpetrators of crime due to their position in areas of social deprivation (Newburn 2003) some poor and disadvantaged people do commit crime because they are poor and disadvantaged. Some of these people get end up staying in prisons and courts as a result. This does not mean that the poor and disadvantaged commit most crime. Black people are likely to be stopped and searched by the police and there are a higher proportion of arrests following these searches and black people receive harsher treatment in the court and in sentencing procedures. According to the Home Office statistic in June 2001 ethnic minorities for 19 percent of the male prison population (12 % black and 2% Asian) (Roberts 2003). The institutional racism operates within the criminal justice system people with different background with different religion e.g. has always been treated differently and classified as second class people within the eyes of justice. Also the Stephen Lawrence inquiry report highlighted the problem of disproportionality and indicated the discrimination was a major problem and also this research has actually pointed to racial stereotyping by the police and black people are likely to get stop and search than white people. In Stephen Lawrence case was 18 black students were hoping to become an architect and was fatally stabbed while waiting for the bus that was a racial attack but police investigation failed to bring the killers into justice this had a big influence on black community. During the early nineteenth century there was not any race and crime issue. This was not due to lack prejudice or indeed a lack of crime. It was because there were relatively few immigrants living in the UK. Black and lower class populations have the highest rates of street and index crime involvement in the UK. (Frank 2009) and Sociological theories argue that the location and experiences in the social environment are responsible for these differences in crime involvement (Calvin Gerald ). In an early contribution to the sociology of knowledge DeGre (1995) observed that all science including those disciplines not involved in the study of human society are part of the tertiary institutions of a culture being influenced by the larger constellation of stresses and strains, cultural values, technological accomplishments and needs and overall definitions of life goals that characterize the social group society and world situation in which they are operative. No one comes into the world with criminality in the way in which one is born with a certain colour of eyes and crimes committed by immigrants are more frequently prosecuted than those committed by white people because immigrants are less likely to defend themselves legally and they are less often in a position to secure a good lawyer and they are more promptly sentenced to prison and in the court stages they are likely to plead guilty to drop their sentence to a lower level this is because they are come from a different culture different belief and different laws that they faced in their own countries and there always a language barrier There is a media effect on race and ethnicity from TV news and from movies people are getting the wrong ideas on immigrants and religion. Media plays important role here in my opinion media shows the criminal act and report them to the public in a negative way rather than report them in a positive way. Because it is a personal interest of media personnel. One more importing thing as well as this if the media giving the news related to crime with fascination in this case the crime ratio of that specific crime will increase for example if in newspapers the news about terrorism is reported so frequently then in this situation the ratio of stop and search will increase according to the British Crime Survey BCS a number of stop and search has actually gone up after the 7/7 London bombing. Entry 4: Future trends The actual volume of crime in Britain has been going down for over a decade or more. Violent crime has also not risen particularly even though the media plays it up big time. The majority of offenders in prison or in front of the courts have little to do with violence and the average custodial sentence is less than 12 months. Even domestic violence is down. Certain categories of crime are higher than ever but actually not as high as previous years and quite stable e.g. gun crime. IN fact if we remove gun crime and knife incidents from the forms of violence black people especially experience we would be relatively free from physical violent crime. Other crimes seem higher than before because the Home Office has changed the police recording procedures to make the clear up and conviction rates look good but that does not mean there has been any serious increase in these crimes. But you cant talk about crime and not talk about the negative effect from the media. Older people generally and white elderly in particular have a greater fear of crime even though they have a significant less exposure to it and one reason is they are so heavily dependent on the media and less mobile and able to see for themselvesThe media in particular target this group and love to frighten the shit out of them and it plays into the party politics and games they love to play. In policing style the police agencies use current statistics to spot crime trends in order to formulate the future law enforcement plans. The internet and the continued evolution of a digital economy offer expanding possibilities for such cyber crime as credit card fraud. atm fraud, identify theft, various computer hacking crimes and even the exploitation of children through internet based child pornography. The technology will play an important role in the future of criminal investigation and police work generally. The future of effective policing will be depending on strengthening the ties between the police and the communities they serve. Because UK is a divert country the police must represent the community and must embody its values and must be perceived as acting on behalf of the community and this requires a commitment on the police leaders as well as individual officers so the public will gain the trust of the police and they will be more confident in the CJS. It is hard to think about the future of crime trends because current conditions can change rapidly as some criminologist believe that crime rates may eventually rise as the number of teens in the population increases only some of criminologist believe this. I think the age structure of society is one of the most important determinants of crime rates but the economy, technological change and social factors will play an important role in crime rate in the UK. If unemployment continues to increase which will be and more attention will be paid to white collar crime and fraud as a result of the massive business failures in the banking, security and housing industries . The race and crime conundrum may become less important as crime and victimization. When the economy turns down people who are unemployed will become more motivated to commit theft crimes and that a good economy will reduce the number of crime. The good positive way is a poor economy actually will help lower crime rates because unemployed parents are at home to supervise their children and guard their possessions. Because there is less to spend I think age in crime will effect crime rate in future because teenagers have extremely high crime rates kids who commit a lot of crime early in childhood are also likely to continue to commit crime in their adulthood. CCTV does work and works best when it is used alongside wider strategy of partnership working between the police and councils and local communities to tackle crime locally and nationally. When it comes to the crime prevention the CCTV is the most effective in reducing crime for example in car parks is most effective when targeted at vehicle crimes and it is more effective in reducing crime in the UK than in other countries. The CCTV can increase the public confidence and the public will likely to support Criminal Justice System for example in reporting crime and act as a witness. Also in recent terrorist investigations including 7/7 London bombing and 21/7 and the conviction of Steve Wright for Ipswich murder that CCTV has played a important role in detecting crime and protecting the public . The new crime threat will be cybercrime if things go as they are. This would be any crime that involves an information system and includes ID theft. As technology advances people are going to be more brazen to commit cybercrimes from home Transnational crime organisation will continue to grow in diversity in many regions in the world. Developed countries like England and America will bore affected by TCSs than in the past. Gilman, A, LÃ ©vy R (2005) Crime and culture: an historical perspective Publisher Ashgate Publishing Freilich D, Guerette(2006) Migration, culture conflict, crime and terrorism Ashgate Publishing, Ltd Valier ,C (2004) Crime and punishment in contemporary culture Routledge London Rodney D. Coates (2004) Race and ethnicity: across time, space, and discipline Publisher BRILL Newburn T (2003) Crime and Criminal Justice Policy London Pearson Education Roberts A. R. (2003) Critical Issues in Crime and Justice London Sage Frank E. H. (2009) Introduction to Criminology: Theories, Methods, and Criminal Behavior London Sage publisher Calvin J. L, Gerald R. G (1996) Crime, justice, and society Publisher Rowman Altamira Barak .G (2000) Crime and crime control: a global view Publisher Greenwood Publishing Group Young, M (2009) White Collar Crime Greenhaven Press Coleman .J.W (2002) The criminal elite: understanding white-collar crime Worth Publishers Author Larry J. Siegel (2008) Criminology Publisher Cengage Learning
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Transmission of Pain Signals by the Brain at the Spinal Level Pain has been defined by Coates & Hindle as an unpleasant emotional and sensory experience which signals a potential or actual damage to tissues (2011, p. 213). Pain is a common human experience and can emanate from injury and illness. There are two main types of pain; acute pain is short-lived, lasting for minutes or several days and its onset often takes place rapidly. It results from the activation of pain nerve endings or nociceptors either by internal or external pain stimuli. On the other hand chronic pain is continuous and sometimes recurrent and can last for weeks, months or even years. Chronic pain is usually not located at or related to the tissue undergoing trauma (Draper & Knight, 2007, p. 104). Various theories have been proposed to explain the mechanism underlying the transmission and perception of pain. These include the specificity theory which maintains that specific fibers and pain receptors are activated by injury after which the pain signals are projected via the spinal pathway to an area in the brain that interprets the pain. In this regard, the specificity theory virtually equates the peripheral injury with the psychological experience caused by the pain (Anderson, 2004, p. 355). However, this theory has been found to harbor several limitations as research about pain has intensified with time. In light of this, the gate theory that was proposed by Melzack and Wall has had a major contribution to the understanding of pain transmission and perception (Pain Game Part 2, 2011). Research has demonstrated that pain is affected by psychological and physiological factors which helps to explain the mechanism underlying inhibition and/or facilitaion of pai... ...t has been noted that the gate control theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 formed the foundation of understanding the process of pain signal transmission. The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is the region of the CNS that controls the passage of pain signals by means of opening and/or closing the gate. Pain can only be perceived if reaches the brain. Events that cause excitation such pain signals and the release of excitatory or facilitatory chemicals cause the gate to open whereas inhibitory events such as competing nerve impulses caused by rubbing trigger closure of the gate. The gate can also be closed due to descending inhibition enhanced by relaxation or the use of pain-relieving medication such as morphine. The brain stem is responsible for controlling the transmission of pain signals via the ascending and descending pain pathways.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Ã But overall when it comes to the characters in the story, it would have been for the older audience, mainly because, many of the characters arenÃ¢â¬â¢t suitable for children, fortunatley the media and industry have transformed the original characters into the more child friendly characters which can be seen in the modern films of a Christmas carol. The gothic genre of stories was favored in the Victorian era so Dickens tried to add some of his gothic conventions to his novella. At the time, children and adults loved the gothic genre so the novella was then most likely to be suitable for all ages. Dickens places in a Christmas carol some of the basic conventions of a gothic story such as the several ghosts and the mystery and suspense in the atmosphere with the ghost of Christmas future. He also sets the first chapter of MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost in his old, dark and gloomy home, the atmosphere becomes mysterious at the time with the constant sound heard and supernatural event, like When Marley appears in his room. There are also many more of these gothic conventions used like the mysterious weather, the rain makes creates a more gothic atmosphere, also with the ghost of Christmas future and a very important convention used in many gothic movies and books, justice-it is present in the novella, like how ScroogeÃ¢â¬â¢s actions means that if any positive change is not present in him he could suffer from a hellish afterlife and how tiny Tim would die without his help. And I think that the final convention of the gothic which is present in the story is the idea of ScroogeÃ¢â¬â¢ heroine in distress, this creates even more tension into the story. In the novella, many different themes are used , for example, coldness and darkness in the first chapter, then once the ghost of Christmas past arrives and takes scrooge to places like FizziwiggÃ¢â¬â¢s home, a theme of happiness is placed to calm the audience and allow their minds to escape from total darkness and to lighten up the story, this method is also commonly used in many gothic stories, basically something scary happens and the audience experience a very intense atmosphere, this intensity is then relieved from the audience by the next scene being a bit brighter or happier. After the Fizziwigg party, the atmosphere becomes saddened and brings the audience back the gloom of the story. And after that the main themes involved in the upcoming chapters happiness with the kind hearted ghost of Christmas present, misery and happiness with ScroogeÃ¢â¬â¢s life before and after him changing into a business obsessed old man, life and death with Tiny Tim, darkness with the ghost of Christmas future and not to mention redemption with involving Scrooge and the Ghosts, and finishes the story off with a happy ending with the much kinder Ebenezer Scrooge. The happy theme at the end of the novella also makes the story more suitable for children as most children stories include happy endings. A Christmas Carol has changed its audience since the story was published, it was initially written for the rich, and to be specific adults, but over time it has been slowly transformed into something many children will be interested in watching, a family classic which is usually enjoyed many ChristmasÃ¢â¬â¢. During this time, the characters have been changed to suit the audience and to allow them to appeal to a children as well as adults, for example, the ghosts have become less gothic, like the ghost of Christmas future and other characters in comparison to the first book or film. My opinion about the audience for a Christmas carol is that it was initially targeted at families; I think this mainly because children would love to have a gothic twist to their Christmas classic and not completely a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s movie so the adults can enjoy it too. To conclude to my essay I personally think that the book was initially written to be suitable for all ages, it is more of a family story, especially considering at the time that all age groups loved gothic stories, both children and adults, making it enjoyable for them both. But at the same time some scenes of the novella may be unsuitable for younger children, especially the scene involving the ghost of Christmas past. Choose either one of the last two.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Measures of Disease Frequency According to Aschengrau and Seage (2008), measures of disease frequency are the Ã¢â¬Å"building blocksÃ¢â¬ employed by epidemiologists to evaluate effects of a disease on humans (2008, p.59).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Measures of Disease Frequency specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When measures of disease frequency are compared, they consolidate building blocks in a constructive manner and permits one to define the correlation between characteristics and a disorder. It is possible to compare disease frequencies between diverse populations. For instance, an epidemiologist may aspire to compare disease frequencies between inhabitants of the United States and Haiti in terms of demographic attributes such as gender, age, race and socio-economic aspects. Other demographic attributes that can be compared are personal habits (i.e. cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption) and environmental aspects (i.e. water and ai r pollution). WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, an epidemiologist may opt to compare prevalence rates of coronary heart ailment between inhabitants of the US and Haiti or amongst smokers and nonsmokers, whites and blacks, men and women, and in areas prevalent with low and high pollution levels (Aschengrau Seage, 2008, p.60). There are several reasons to explain why the crude birth rate in Haiti is lower than in the United States. First of all, the United States is more populated than Haiti. Secondly, the population proportion of elderly persons in the US is higher than in Haiti. Therefore, the higher proportion of elderly persons in the US explains why the country has a higher crude mortality rate than Haiti.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the per capita income in the US is significantly higher than in Haiti. Consequently, many US citizens spent their earnings on pro miscuous lifestyle activities such as smoking, alcohol drinking and drug abuse which increase disease frequency (Xu et al., 2009, p.5). Improvements in diagnostic criteria can significantly reduce the prevalence of an existing health condition. The critical rationale for diagnostic criteria is that it facilitates the establishment of the threshold for diagnosis of an ailment in those circumstances where the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves. However, there are several diagnoses where the symptom criteria demand the existence of impairment with respect to level of functioning that are plainly deemed as clinically significant. Numerous DSM categories exist for which the symptom criteria infer substantial suffering. One might assume that in such incidences, the clinical significance criterion is irrelevant since the distress condition has been fulfilled. Nonetheless, this is not the case since the requirement for diagnostic criterion (that the ailment be clinically considerab le) may raise the threshold for diagnosis thereby disregarding some false positive (Spitzer Wakefield, 1999, p. 1860). There is no doubt that a shorter duration of a health condition reduces the prevalence of a health condition. For instance, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is used to compare the significance of health interventions among diverse health outcomes among various ages.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Measures of Disease Frequency specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, when DALY increases (as a result of health intervention), the prevalence of a health condition reduces. Similarly, a decrease in the incidence of a disease reduces the prevalence of a health condition since diagnostic and preventive measures are already in place to deter the recurrence of the health condition (Musgrove Fox-Rushby, 2008, p.2). Finally, the loss of healthy people from the population for other reasons neither incre ases nor decreases the prevalent of a health condition since their deaths are not caused by the existing health condition. References Aschengrau, A., Seage, GR. (2008). Essentials of Epidemiology in Public Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Musgrove, P Fox-Rushby, J. (2008). Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Priority Settings. New York: Oxford University Press. Spritzer, R. Wakefield, J. (1999). DSM-IV Diagnostic Criterion for Clinical Significance: Does it Help Solve the False Positive Problem? Am J Psychiatry, 156, 1856-1864. Xu, J., Kochanek, KD. Tejada-Vera, B. (2009). Preliminary Data for 2007. National Vital Statistics Reports, 58(1), 1-51.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Summary of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe Ã¢â¬â Literature Essay Free Online Research Papers Summary of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe Literature Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Robinson Crusoe is certainly the first novel in the sense that it is the first fictional narrative in which the ordinary personÃ¢â¬â¢s activities are the centre of continuous literary attention.Ã¢â¬ Before that, in the early eighteenth century, authors like Pope, Swift, Addison and Steele looked back to the Rome of Caesar Augustus (27 BC Ã¢â¬â 14 AD) as a golden age. That period is called the Augustan age. Literature was very different since it focused on mythology and epic heroes. However, to what extent can Robinson Crusoe be called the Ã¢â¬Å"first novelÃ¢â¬ and how is it different from all that have been done so far? Besides, what are the evolutions in the novel genre leading to Victorian novels, like Pride and Prejudice published almost one hundred years later (1813) in terms of style, themes and concerns? Augustan writers, before Daniel Defoe, were very protective of the status quo and their novels were philosophical and religious, based on a myth of the eternal fitness of things. By contrast, Defoe stood for revolutionary change, economic individualism, social mobility, trade, and freedom of consciousness. For Swift, Defoe was Ã¢â¬Å"the fellow that was pilloried, I have forgotten his name.Ã¢â¬ He represented at once a social literary and intellectual challenge to the Augustan world, and the Augustans reacted to him accordingly. In Robinson Crusoe, Defoe deals with major points of Western civilisation like trade, mercantile capitalism since at that time, a great attempt was made to dominate other continents, spread culture, beliefs, like for example, when Robinson tries to convert Friday into Christianity, as he considers him a savage. In the eighteenth century, British economically depended on slave trade, which was abolished on the early 1800s. Therefore, Daniel Defoe was familiar with this practise, even though he did not actively criticise it. There is consequently no surprise that, Robinson treats Friday as his slave. However, Crusoe is able to recognise FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s humanity, though he does not see his slavery as a contradiction. Robinson Crusoe was written in a context of a European colonialism well established around the globe. Next, material wealth is a sign of prestige and power in RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. For instance, he often lists his belongings, like the amount of land ploughed, his provisions, and he stores the coins found on various wrecks. On top of that, he calls his Ã¢â¬Å"base,Ã¢â¬ his Ã¢â¬Å"castleÃ¢â¬ and eventually considers himself as a Ã¢â¬Å"King.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, material power is an important element as well as religion and faith in the novel. Robinson rejects his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s advice and religious teachings at the beginning of the novel, in order to travel and have some adventure and wealth. Although, his shipwreck can be considered as a moral punishment and his disobedience as a sin, the protagonist did accumulate wealth and did survive at the end of the novel. Thus, the fact that he was punished can be argued and discussed. RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion about religion is very clear. He is a puritan and tries to spread his convictions on the island to convert into Christianity Friday, who is very rational. The hero simply refuses FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s own beliefs, thinking that his religion is the best one. This thought may be due to the fact that British people believed that they had a right and a duty to transmit their knowledge, culture and religion. By contrast, Pride and Prejudice was written a century later, and therefore, the worries were no longer the same. In Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, there is a complete shift to everyday life and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns. The writer reveals the ethical basis of everyday life, and shows how Ã¢â¬Å"the ordinary occurrences of the world, no less than great actions, were centred on moral conventions, moral judgement and moral choiceÃ¢â¬ so that, living in such a society required a constant will and intellect to control the self and understand others. Differently from Daniel Defoe, her main concern is her emotional centre, not RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s economic adventure. The shifts of interests are mainly caused by a change in society and a transformation in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. In AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s times, the most important thing is not the individual in itself but far more, the individual living in a society strongly hierarchical, and based on a strong and deeply rooted system of class. That difference can be pointed by the two openings of Pride and Prejudice on the one hand, and Robinson Crusoe on the other hand. Ã¢â¬Å"It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. However little known the feelings or views of such a man may be on his first entering a neighbourhood, this truth is so well fixed in the minds of the surrounding families, that he is considered as the rightful property of some one or other of their daughters. [Ã¢â¬ ¦]Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen who settled first at Hull. [Ã¢â¬ ¦]Ã¢â¬ The choice of words clearly shows that the two books are about to tackle different perspectives: the individual in Robinson Crusoe and the relation of the individual and the society in Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Pride and Prejudice. To carry on with Pride and Prejudice, marriage and money were two recurrent themes in Victorian peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds, as shown with Mrs Bennet, who in the very first chapter claims, Ã¢â¬Å"the business of her life was to get her daughters married.Ã¢â¬ In AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s plot, the Bennet daughters are in real danger if they do not marry and find a house since the obsequious Mr Collins will inherit the house after Mr BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Therefore, marriage is the only exit for the Bennet daughters. Money is seen as a potential progress in the Victorian society, likewise in Robinson Crusoe where trade may be perceived as a benefit for a society in expansion. Nonetheless, we have just seen that both novels deal with the question of individual. Robinson Crusoe is clearly based on the individual and his accomplishment. The protagonist is stranded on an island, and has to survive and live decently entirely on his own resources. This stress on individual is in keeping with humanism, an important feature in the early eighteenth century. Ã¢â¬Å"There exists an immutable human essence, usually known as Ã¢â¬Ëhuman natureÃ¢â¬â¢ which is historically invariable, and our understanding of it embodied in Western literature.Ã¢â¬ Human nature is held to process great potential for dignity and mobility. In DefoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Robinson Crusoe, just a few characters really appear in the plot. We can quote Robinson Crusoe, Friday, the English captain, the Portuguese Captain who rescued Crusoe when he escaped from Sallee, the WidowÃ¢â¬ ¦ There are obviously less characters than in Pride and Prejudice. Defoe also highlights individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ emotions su ch as fear, anger, despair, hope and relief. However, Robinson only values Friday as a devotedly and reliable servant, and does not consider him a friend. There is no room for love, since there are no female characters involved in the plot. We are portrayed a masculine world where women have nothing to do in it. On the contrary, Austen was interested in individualÃ¢â¬â¢s problems and especially in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns illustrated by interactions with others and mainly through the two protagonists: Elizabeth Bennet and Darcy Fitzwilliam. As the title of the novel suggests, the intrigue is structured around both concepts of Ã¢â¬Å"prideÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"prejudice.Ã¢â¬ Elizabeth has to overcome her prejudice against Darcy to really appreciate his own personality and clearly see through him, beyond appearances and othersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions like her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s. On the other hand, Darcy has to forget ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s social rank and the fact that she has no Ã¢â¬Å"connection Ã¢â¬ in order to really value her. In that way, these two characters are like Ã¢â¬Å"roundÃ¢â¬ characters since they evolve and progress learning by their defects and by recognising they were wrong. Besides, Jane Austen does not hesitate to criticise the society and the system of class in which she lives, mocking at Mr Collins and his way he addresses people. He uses a very convoluted speech, completely inappropriate to the situation, like for example his proposal to Elisabeth: Ã¢â¬Å"My reasons for marrying are, first, that I think it a right thing for every clergyman in easy circumstances (like myself) to se the example of matrimony in his parish. Secondly, that I am convinced it will add very greatly to my happiness; and thirdly Ã¢â¬â which perhaps I ought to have mentioned earlier, that it is the particular advice and recommendation of the very noble lady whom I have the honour of calling patroness. [Ã¢â¬ ¦]Ã¢â¬ In that proposal, Mr Collins has no feeling at all towards Elisabeth, and his speech is much more calculated we could expect. It is like a mathematical demonstration stressed by the style because, as Jane Austen says in chapter 15, Ã¢â¬Å"Mr Collins was not a sensible man, and the deficiency of nature had been but little assisted by education or society.Ã¢â¬ Thus, style is crucial in a novel to picture charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviours. Nonetheless, both booksÃ¢â¬â¢ writing is radically different. First, regarding the narrator point of view, Robinson Crusoe is written in the first person singular. As a consequence, we constantly have RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view and opinion about the events happening. We have to wonder whether the protagonist, through which the story is described, may be reliable or not, and if we can trust him. If we had FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view instead, it is clear that we would have a complete different opinion about Robinson. By contrast, in Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Pride and Prejudice, an omniscient narrator knowing absolutely everything tells the story. Consequently, the writer can arouse some dramatic irony creating gaps between what the reader knows and what the characters know, like for example, the fact that we know that Darcy loves secretly Elisabeth, whereas the heroin does not know that. Jane Austen contro ls the plot and sometimes intervenes to question the reader, and criticise some controversial points. The best example is the first sentence opening the novel which remains famous: Ã¢â¬Å"it is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.Ã¢â¬ (p.1) She clearly criticises the way that society works sparkling off some irony in that sentence, because society works the other way round. Nevertheless, in a single sentence, she already tackles with issues like money and marriage. Secondly, the third person narrative voice enables Jane Austen to put into practise her showing-telling technique. She describes the characters (telling) by, simply letting them speak, their personality being rendered by their way of speaking (showing). The most relevant example is Mrs BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. She is described as a complete Ã¢â¬Å"foolishÃ¢â¬ person, gossiping and only interested in marrying her daughters. For instance on the first page, Mr Bennet has a talk with his wife: My dear Mr. Bennet, said his lady to him one day, have you heard that Netherfield Park is let at last? Mr. Bennet replied that he had not. But it is, returned she; for Mrs. Long has just been here, and she told me all about it. Mr. Bennet made no answer. Do not you want to know who has taken it? cried his wife impatiently. You want to tell me, and I have no objection to hearing it. This was invitation enough. Why, my dear, you must know, Mrs. Long says that Netherfield is taken by a young man of large fortune from the north of England; that he came down on Monday in a chaise and four to see the place, and was so much delighted with it that he agreed with Mr. Morris immediately; that he is to take possession before Michaelmas, and some of his servants are to be in the house by the end of next week. Moreover, Ã¢â¬Å"for rapid effects and subtle shifts of emphasis, AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s language half assumes the mode of thought and expression of her characters, so that their consciousness are seen, filtered through the central authorial intelligence, and more can be understood from the authorial tone-of-voice than from straight forward report.Ã¢â¬ Furthermore, using the third person voice, Jane Austen keeps us much in the dark about DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s character so that during our first reading, we are also misled by his behaviour, as Elizabeth is herself, pushing us to believe that he is very proud and haughty. Austen does that by Ã¢â¬Å"screening most of our impressions through Elizabeth in order to bring off the chief dramatic effect of the story,Ã¢â¬ overwhelming surprise at his first proposal. Last but not least, there was a clear-cut evolution between the two novels in the construction of the plot itself. Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬â¢s story is far more complicated, since the events are intermingled and are caused by others or are the consequences leading to other upheavals. Nevertheless, at the end, everything is solved, and every plot has an answer: Elizabeth marrying Darcy, Lydia marrying Mr Bingley, and Charlotte Lucas living with Mr Collins without loving him. Contrasting this causality, we can say that Robinson Crusoe looks like an epistolary story. During a couple of pages, Robinson even carries on telling his adventures through a diary, in the chapter Ã¢â¬Å"The Journal.Ã¢â¬ That technique could have been influenced by the fact that Daniel Defoe was also a journalist. Concisely, DefoeÃ¢â¬â¢s plot is simpler with only one main plot arousing the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination more than possible burning issues. To conclude, Robinson Crusoe is a novel in itself, since it includes all the characteristics: characters, plot, and narrative voice. However, the concerns and the themes in 1719 were not the same as in 1813 because Daniel Defoe and Jane Austen did not live in the same world and society at all. On the other hand, Austen perfected the techniques of dramatic-presentation, socially analysed language, which were necessary to tackle the dilemma of individual moral choice and the relation between individuals and society in the bourgeois world. Later, in 1871, George EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Middlemarch appeared. This novel concerns issues of rank, reputation and marriage and it observes in a realistic way the characters, and the entire community from nobility to tradesmen. Realism was a key concept, very important since AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s times, and this was a deed which will go down in literatureÃ¢â¬â¢s history. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Corpus Austen, J. Pride and Prejudice. 1813. London: Heron Books, 1968. Defoe, D. Robinson Crusoe. 1719. London: Penguin Popular Classics, 1994. 2. Secondary Texts Babb, H.S. Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Novels: The Fabric of Dialogue. London: Archon Books, 1967. Skilton, D. The English novel: Defoe to the Victorians. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1977. 3. Further Reading David, D. ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Victorian Novel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Loveridge, M. A history of Augustan fable. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Secord, A.W. Studies in the Narrative Method of Defoe. New York: Russell and Russell, 1963: 9-108. Sherbo, A. Studies in the Eighteenth Century English Novel. Michigan: Michigan State UP, 1969: ch.10. Skinner, J. An Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Fiction. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001. Spaas, L. Robinson Crusoe: Myths and Metamorphoses. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996. 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Monday, November 4, 2019
Educating Mobile Phone Users - Research Proposal Example Thus, the purpose of this analysis is to indirectly educate mobile phone users about the environs of mobile phone advertising. As a mobile phone user myself, I firmly believe that by systematically evaluating mobile phone advertising using two particular commercials, I can make users aware of the elements of mobile phone advertising. The audience of this study is expected to be fully aware of how fascinating elements of advertising can affect their decision in purchasing mobile phones. Thus, this will help them to be conscious of the psychological effects of advertising exaggerations and be more careful in purchasing mobile phones based only on their advertisements. Therefore, as a tentative thesis statement, it is expected that mobile phone advertisements dwell more on the enthrallment of owning a trendy mobile phone than on the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s need to meet their multi-faceted needs via their mobile phone. (5) As this study aims to educate mobile phone users to be more careful in basing their decisions to purchase phones on advertisements, an editorial approach to this study is the most appropriate genre for this analysis. Some elements of writing a review may be used, as this will help the researcher to specifically focus on the two advertisements. However, an editorial will make this study relevant to mobile phone users as it will link the reviews of two advertisements on the aspects to consider in indulging oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self to believe in mobile phone advertisements. Although the study will not be a sheer criticism, it will consist of the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s view on the importance of mobile phone advertising awareness in order to effectively decide in purchasing mobile phones.
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Socio-Economic Status of Cities in Michigan State - Case Study Example Washtenaw County is one of the oldest counties in Michigan State having been initially founded in 1822 then later organized as a county in 1826. This county has an area of 1870 square kilometer. In this area, 1829 square kilometer island and 41 square kilometers is water. The population of Washtenaw County, according to the 2010 census done by the U.S Census Bureau is about 344791 people. As a county, Washtenaw comprises of places such as MI Metropolitan Statistical Area and Ann Arbor. There are different educational institutions in this county such as Eastern Michigan University, University of Michigan, Concordia University Ann Arbor, the Ann Arbor campus of Thomas M. Cooley Law School and Washtenaw Community College. This county is surrounded by other different counties, including Livingston County in the North, Wayne County on the East, Monroe County at the southeast, Jackson County at the West, Lenawee County in the Southwest and Ingham County at the Northwest(U.S. Department of Commerce, 35). Ann Arbor is a city found in Washtenaw County. It has a total area of 74.33 square Kilometers. In this, 72.08 square kilometers island while the remaining 2.25 square kilometers is water. The main water source in this city is Huron River. This city is a home to 113934 people going by the 2010 census. The city was founded in 1824 and its steady rise is attributed to the establishment of the University of Michigan in 1837. This university has shaped and is continuing to shape the economy of Ann Arbor by employing about thirty thousand workers, twelve thousand of them working at the medical center. The University of Michigan has also attracted a lot of researchers and companies to conduct their research here thus making it a center of technology.